Record Information
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:58:47 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:13 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB03378
Name:Nitric oxide
DescriptionNitric oxide or nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in biological systems. It is also cytotoxic.
  • Mononitrogen monoxide
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrogen monoxide
  • Nitrogen oxide
  • Nitrogen protoxide
  • Nitrosyl hydride
  • Nitrosyl radical
  • Nitroxide radical
  • Nitroxyl
  • NO
Chemical Formula:NO
Weight:Average: 30.0061
Monoisotopic: 29.997988627
CAS number:10102-43-9
IUPAC Name:nitroso
Traditional IUPAC Name:nitric oxide
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassOther non-metal organides
Sub ClassOther non-metal oxides
Direct ParentOther non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
  • Other non-metal oxide
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Melting point:-163.6 °C
Experimental Properties:
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity2.89 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
SMPDB Pathways:
Nitrogen metabolismPW000755 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
  • Arginine and proline metabolism ec00330
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments ec01120
  • Nitrogen metabolism ec00910
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Not Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d182bfca83d886821e6dView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-8a2dd9da1fc114d013b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-8a2dd9da1fc114d013b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-8a2dd9da1fc114d013b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-e998110984a05853a05dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-e998110984a05853a05dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-e998110984a05853a05dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-4faa0e3c79683567bab0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-4faa0e3c79683567bab0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-4faa0e3c79683567bab0View in MoNA
  • Atiya A, Cohen G, Ignarro L, Brunicardi FC: Nitric oxide regulates insulin secretion in the isolated perfused human pancreas via a cholinergic mechanism. Surgery. 1996 Aug;120(2):322-7. Pubmed: 8751600
  • Bernstein HG, Bogerts B, Keilhoff G: The many faces of nitric oxide in schizophrenia. A review. Schizophr Res. 2005 Oct 1;78(1):69-86. Pubmed: 16005189
  • Brown DA, Canning MT, Nay SL, Pena AV, Yarosh DB: Bicyclic monoterpene diols stimulate release of nitric oxide from skin cells, increase microcirculation, and elevate skin temperature. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Aug;15(1):70-6. Epub 2006 Apr 19. Pubmed: 16626981
  • Browning DD, McShane MP, Marty C, Ye RD: Nitric oxide activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in 293T fibroblasts requires cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 28;275(4):2811-6. Pubmed: 10644746
  • Calka J: The role of nitric oxide in the hypothalamic control of LHRH and oxytocin release, sexual behavior and aging of the LHRH and oxytocin neurons. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2006;44(1):3-12. Pubmed: 16584085
  • Heym C, Colombo-Benckmann M, Mayer B: Immunohistochemical demonstration of the synthesis enzyme for nitric oxide and of comediators in neurons and chromaffin cells of the human adrenal medulla. Ann Anat. 1994 Jan;176(1):11-6. Pubmed: 7508210
  • Huguenin S, Vacherot F, Fleury-Feith J, Riffaud JP, Chopin DK, Bolla M, Jaurand MC: Evaluation of the antitumoral potential of different nitric oxide-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) on human urological tumor cell lines. Cancer Lett. 2005 Feb 10;218(2):163-70. Pubmed: 15670893
  • Huledal G, Jonzon B, Malmenas M, Hedman A, Andersson LI, Odlind B, Brater DC: Renal effects of the cyclooxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donator AZD3582 compared with rofecoxib and naproxen during normal and low sodium intake. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;77(5):437-50. Pubmed: 15900289
  • Hurford WE: Current status of nitric oxide inhalation. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1995 Dec;33 Suppl:199-204. Pubmed: 8752507
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kaynar H, Meral M, Turhan H, Keles M, Celik G, Akcay F: Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of patients with small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005 Sep 28;227(2):133-9. Epub 2005 Jan 8. Pubmed: 16112416
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Khanna A, Cowled PA, Fitridge RA: Nitric oxide and skeletal muscle reperfusion injury: current controversies (research review). J Surg Res. 2005 Sep;128(1):98-107. Pubmed: 15961106
  • Kim N, Vardi Y, Padma-Nathan H, Daley J, Goldstein I, Saenz de Tejada I: Oxygen tension regulates the nitric oxide pathway. Physiological role in penile erection. J Clin Invest. 1993 Feb;91(2):437-42. Pubmed: 7679408
  • Kublickiene KR, Cockell AP, Nisell H, Poston L: Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of vascular tone in pressurized and perfused resistance myometrial arteries from term pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Nov;177(5):1263-9. Pubmed: 9396927
  • Moon A: Influence of nitric oxide signalling pathways on pre-contracted human detrusor smooth muscle in vitro. BJU Int. 2002 Jun;89(9):942-9. Pubmed: 12010245
  • Muerkoster S, Wegehenkel K, Arlt A, Witt M, Sipos B, Kruse ML, Sebens T, Kloppel G, Kalthoff H, Folsch UR, Schafer H: Tumor stroma interactions induce chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells involving increased secretion and paracrine effects of nitric oxide and interleukin-1beta. Cancer Res. 2004 Feb 15;64(4):1331-7. Pubmed: 14973050
  • Neri S, Signorelli S, Pulvirenti D, Mauceri B, Cilio D, Bordonaro F, Abate G, Interlandi D, Misseri M, Ignaccolo L, Savastano M, Azzolina R, Grillo C, Messina A, Serra A, Tsami A: Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction and tinnitus. Free Radic Res. 2006 Jun;40(6):615-8. Pubmed: 16753839
  • Nichols K, Staines W, Krantis A: Neural sites of the human colon colocalize nitric oxide synthase-related NADPH diaphorase activity and neuropeptide Y. Gastroenterology. 1994 Oct;107(4):968-75. Pubmed: 7523222
  • Noris M, Todeschini M, Cassis P, Pasta F, Cappellini A, Bonazzola S, Macconi D, Maucci R, Porrati F, Benigni A, Picciolo C, Remuzzi G: L-arginine depletion in preeclampsia orients nitric oxide synthase toward oxidant species. Hypertension. 2004 Mar;43(3):614-22. Epub 2004 Jan 26. Pubmed: 14744923
  • Ormerod AD, Copeland P, Hay I, Husain A, Ewen SW: The inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of a nitric oxide releasing cream on normal skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Sep;113(3):392-7. Pubmed: 10469339
  • Reitz A, Knapp PA, Muntener M, Schurch B: Oral nitric oxide donors: a new pharmacological approach to detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in spinal cord injured patients? Eur Urol. 2004 Apr;45(4):516-20. Pubmed: 15041118
  • Santoro G, Romeo C, Impellizzeri P, Ientile R, Cutroneo G, Trimarchi F, Pedale S, Turiaco N, Gentile C: Nitric oxide synthase patterns in normal and varicocele testis in adolescents. BJU Int. 2001 Dec;88(9):967-73. Pubmed: 11851622
  • Slaghekke F, Dekker G, Jeffries B: Endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide and preeclampsia: a review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006 Aug;19(8):447-52. Pubmed: 16966108
  • Stack WA, Filipowicz B, Hawkey CJ: Nitric oxide donating compounds stimulate human colonic ion transport in vitro. Gut. 1996 Jul;39(1):93-9. Pubmed: 8881817
  • Stephens C, Fawcett TN: Nitric oxide and nursing: a review. J Clin Nurs. 2007 Jan;16(1):67-76. Pubmed: 17181668
Synthesis Reference:Morabito, Paul; Heicklen, Julian. Disproportionation to combination ratios of alkoxy radicals with nitric oxide. Journal of Physical Chemistry (1985), 89(13), 2914-16.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID945
Kegg IDC00533
ChemSpider ID127983
WikipediaNitric oxide


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Various electron acceptors are also reduced by HMP in vitro, including dihydropterine, ferrisiderophores, ferric citrate, cytochrome c, nitrite, S-nitrosoglutathione, and alkylhydroperoxides. However, it is unknown if these reactions are of any biological significance in vivo
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2 NO + 2 O(2) + NAD(P)H = 2 NO(3)(-) + NAD(P)(+).
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
One of at least two accessory proteins for anaerobic nitric oxide (NO) reductase. Reduces the rubredoxin moiety of NO reductase
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Reduced NO reductase rubredoxin + NAD(+) = oxidized NO reductase rubredoxin + NADH.
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Anaerobic nitric oxide reductase; uses NADH to detoxify nitric oxide (NO), protecting several 4Fe-4S NO-sensitive enzymes. Has at least 2 reductase partners, only one of which (NorW, flavorubredoxin reductase) has been identified. NO probably binds to the di-iron center; electrons enter from the reductase at rubredoxin and are transferred sequentially to the FMN center and the di-iron center. Also able to function as an aerobic oxygen reductase
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General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
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General function:
Involved in transporter activity
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Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
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General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
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General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
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