Name:Very short patch repair protein
  • DNA mismatch endonuclease
  • V.EcoKDcm
  • Vsr mismatch endonuclease
Gene Name:vsr
Enzyme Class:Not Available
Biological Properties
General Function:Involved in endonuclease activity
Specific Function:Deamination of 5-methylcytosine in DNA results in T/G mismatches. If unrepaired, these mismatches can lead to C-to-C transition mutations. The very short patch (VSP) repair process in E.coli counteracts the mutagenic process by repairing the mismatches in favor of the G-containing strand. This enzyme is an endonuclease that nicks double-stranded DNA within the sequence CT(AT)GN or NT(AT)GG next to the thymidine residue that is mismatched to 2'-deoxyguanosine. The incision is mismatch- dependent and strand-specific
Cellular Location:Cytoplasmic
SMPDB Pathways:Not Available
KEGG Pathways:Not Available
GO Classification:
catalytic activity
DNA binding
endonuclease activity
hydrolase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
nuclease activity
nucleic acid binding
cellular macromolecule metabolic process
DNA metabolic process
DNA repair
macromolecule metabolic process
metabolic process
mismatch repair
Gene Properties
Gene OrientationCounterclockwise
Centisome Percentage:43.72
Left Sequence End2028472
Right Sequence End2028942
Gene Sequence:
>471 bp
Protein Properties
Pfam Domain Function:
Protein Residues:156
Protein Molecular Weight:18015
Protein Theoretical pI:8
PDB File:1CW0
Signaling Regions:
  • None
Transmembrane Regions:
  • None
Protein Sequence:
>Very short patch repair protein
External Links:
Uniprot ID:P09184
Uniprot Name:VSR_ECOLI
GenBank Gene ID:AP009048
Genebank Protein ID:85674482
Ecogene ID:EG11068
Kegg Gene:b1960
EchoBASE ID:EB1061
General Reference:
  • Blattner, F. R., Plunkett, G. 3rd, Bloch, C. A., Perna, N. T., Burland, V., Riley, M., Collado-Vides, J., Glasner, J. D., Rode, C. K., Mayhew, G. F., Gregor, J., Davis, N. W., Kirkpatrick, H. A., Goeden, M. A., Rose, D. J., Mau, B., Shao, Y. (1997). "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12." Science 277:1453-1462. Pubmed: 9278503
  • Fox, K. R., Allinson, S. L., Sahagun-Krause, H., Brown, T. (2000). "Recognition of GT mismatches by Vsr mismatch endonuclease." Nucleic Acids Res 28:2535-2540. Pubmed: 10871403
  • Hanck, T., Gerwin, N., Fritz, H. J. (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the dcm locus of Escherichia coli K12." Nucleic Acids Res 17:5844. Pubmed: 2527357
  • Hayashi, K., Morooka, N., Yamamoto, Y., Fujita, K., Isono, K., Choi, S., Ohtsubo, E., Baba, T., Wanner, B. L., Mori, H., Horiuchi, T. (2006). "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110." Mol Syst Biol 2:2006.0007. Pubmed: 16738553
  • Hennecke, F., Kolmar, H., Brundl, K., Fritz, H. J. (1991). "The vsr gene product of E. coli K-12 is a strand- and sequence-specific DNA mismatch endonuclease." Nature 353:776-778. Pubmed: 1944537
  • Itoh, T., Aiba, H., Baba, T., Hayashi, K., Inada, T., Isono, K., Kasai, H., Kimura, S., Kitakawa, M., Kitagawa, M., Makino, K., Miki, T., Mizobuchi, K., Mori, H., Mori, T., Motomura, K., Nakade, S., Nakamura, Y., Nashimoto, H., Nishio, Y., Oshima, T., Saito, N., Sampei, G., Seki, Y., Horiuchi, T., et, a. l. .. (1996). "A 460-kb DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome corresponding to the 40.1-50.0 min region on the linkage map." DNA Res 3:379-392. Pubmed: 9097040
  • Sohail, A., Lieb, M., Dar, M., Bhagwat, A. S. (1990). "A gene required for very short patch repair in Escherichia coli is adjacent to the DNA cytosine methylase gene." J Bacteriol 172:4214-4221. Pubmed: 2198248
  • Tsutakawa, S. E., Jingami, H., Morikawa, K. (1999). "Recognition of a TG mismatch: the crystal structure of very short patch repair endonuclease in complex with a DNA duplex." Cell 99:615-623. Pubmed: 10612397
  • Tsutakawa, S. E., Muto, T., Kawate, T., Jingami, H., Kunishima, N., Ariyoshi, M., Kohda, D., Nakagawa, M., Morikawa, K. (1999). "Crystallographic and functional studies of very short patch repair endonuclease." Mol Cell 3:621-628. Pubmed: 10360178