Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 09:57:45 -0600
Update Date2015-06-03 15:53:12 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00122
Identification
Name:D-Glucose
Description:Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • α-glucose
  • (+)-Glucose
  • 6-(Hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2,3,4,5-tetraol
  • A-D-Glucose
  • a-Glucose
  • Alpha-Glucose
  • Anhydrous dextrose
  • Cerelose
  • Cerelose 2001
  • Clearsweet 95
  • Clintose L
  • Corn sugar
  • CPC hydrate
  • CPC hydric acid
  • D(+)-Glucose
  • D-glucose
  • Dextropur
  • Dextrose
  • Dextrosol
  • Glucodin
  • Glucolin
  • Glucose
  • Goldsugar
  • Grape sugar
  • Meritose
  • Roferose ST
  • Staleydex 111
  • Staleydex 95M
  • Tabfine 097(HS)
  • Vadex
  • α-Glucose
Chemical Formula:C6H12O6
Weight:Average: 180.1559
Monoisotopic: 180.063388116
InChI Key:WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
CAS number:50-99-7
IUPAC Name:(3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional IUPAC Name:glucose
SMILES:OC[C@H]1OC(O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
Sub ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:146-150 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:1200.0 mg/mL [MULLIN,JW (1972)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.24 [SANGSTER (1994)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose <> ADP + D-Hexose 6-phosphate + Glucose 6-phosphate
Sucrose + Water <> D-Fructose + D-Glucose
Water + Trehalose 6-phosphate <> D-Glucose + D-Hexose 6-phosphate
Melibiose + Water <> D-Galactose + D-Glucose
Protein N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine + D-Glucose <> Protein histidine + Glucose 6-phosphate
Cyanoglycoside + Water <> Cyanohydrin + D-Glucose
cis-beta-D-Glucosyl-2-hydroxycinnamate + Water <> cis-2-Hydroxycinnamate + D-Glucose
1,4-alpha-D-glucan + D-Glucose <> D-Maltose
Neohancoside D + Water <> D-Fructose + D-Glucose
Melibiose + Water <> D-Galactose + D-Glucose
Water + Trehalose 6-phosphate <> D-Glucose + D-Hexose 6-phosphate
Lactose + Water <> D-Glucose + D-Galactose
D-Glucose + Ubiquinone-1 <> Gluconolactone + Ubiquinol-8
D-Glucose <> b-D-Glucose
a 1,4-&alpha;-D-glucan + Water > a 1,4-&alpha;-D-glucan + D-Glucose
Maltotriose + Water > D-Maltose + D-Glucose
nigerose + Water D-Glucose
Trehalose + Water > b-D-Glucose + D-Glucose
Alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate + Water > D-Glucose + Inorganic phosphate
6-Phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + Water > D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
6-Phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + Water > D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
6-Phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + Water > D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
6-Phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + Water > D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
D-Glucose + Ubiquinone-10 > Gluconolactone + Ubiquinol-1
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose > ADP + Glucose 6-phosphate
Trehalose 6-phosphate + Water > D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
Cellobiose-6-phosphate + Water <> D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
Glucose 1-phosphate + Water <> D-Glucose + Phosphate
Trehalose 6-phosphate + Water <> D-Glucose + Glucose 6-phosphate
D-Glucose + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine diphosphate + beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate + ADP
Sucrose + Water <> D-Fructose + D-Glucose + D-Fructose
Maltotriose + Water > D-Maltose + D-Glucose
D-Maltose + Maltotriose > Maltotetraose + D-Glucose
D-Glucose + [PTS enzyme I]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine > β-D-glucose 1-phosphate + [PTS enzyme I]-L-histidine
More...

SMPDB Pathways:
Galactose metabolismPW000821 Pw000821Pw000821 greyscalePw000821 simple
Lac OperonPW000955 Pw000955Pw000955 greyscalePw000955 simple
Lac Operon Inactivation 1PW000957 Pw000957Pw000957 greyscalePw000957 simple
Lac Operon Inactivation 2PW000956 Pw000956Pw000956 greyscalePw000956 simple
Operon: arabinose inactivationPW001879 Pw001879Pw001879 greyscalePw001879 simple
Starch and sucrose metabolismPW000941 Pw000941Pw000941 greyscalePw000941 simple
inner membrane transportPW000786 Pw000786Pw000786 greyscalePw000786 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS; 1 MEOX)splash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS; 1 MEOX)splash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 5 TMS)splash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 5 TMS)splash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9300000000-839f41cf94a071fcdb37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9000000000-807f75d14f3d0b66f5bdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000t-9000000000-b89668f86992a8363664View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-b70415588e768ddce5efView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-73dc84dd88d8ae69fe02View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-9c25b149885d8a48aab5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-76d92ea96364c24ecfb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
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  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • KASER H, COTTIER P, ANTENER I: Glucoglycinuria, a new familial syndrome. J Pediatr. 1962 Sep;61:386-94. Pubmed: 14454131
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kodama H, Okada S, Inui K, Yutaka T, Yabuuchi H: Studies on alpha-ketoglutaric aciduria in type I glycogenosis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1980 Aug;131(4):347-53. Pubmed: 6936873
  • Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. Pubmed: 9693263
  • Roberts E: The importance of being dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (in the blood of primates): a longer and healthier life? Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 15;57(4):329-46. Pubmed: 9933021
  • Rohdewald VP, Rehder J, Mollmann H, Barth J, Derendorf H: [Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prednisolone following extremely high dosage as prednisolone hemisuccinate] Arzneimittelforschung. 1987 Feb;37(2):194-8. Pubmed: 3580023
  • Sakai T, Suzuki J, Marumo F, Kikawada R: A case of Fanconi syndrome with type 1 renal tubular acidosis. Jpn Circ J. 1981 Oct;45(10):1164-9. Pubmed: 7299995
  • Sokup A, Swiatkowski M, Tyloch M, Skublicki S, Szymanski W, Goralczyk K: [Insulin secretion at the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is lower in multiparas than in primiparas] Ginekol Pol. 2006 Jan;77(1):4-9. Pubmed: 16736954
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  • Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  • Surdacki A, Nowicki M, Sandmann J, Tsikas D, Boeger RH, Bode-Boeger SM, Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska O, Kokot F, Dubiel JS, Froelich JC: Reduced urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites and increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in men with essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;33(4):652-8. Pubmed: 10218738
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Vijayendran, C., Barsch, A., Friehs, K., Niehaus, K., Becker, A., Flaschel, E. (2008). "Perceiving molecular evolution processes in Escherichia coli by comprehensive metabolite and gene expression profiling." Genome Biol 9:R72. Pubmed: 18402659
  • Zebrower ME, Kieras FJ, Brown WT: Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfates. Anal Biochem. 1986 Aug 15;157(1):93-9. Pubmed: 3094400
  • Zhao J, Wu LF: [Study of the causes of fetal growth restriction with unclear etiologies] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2004 May;39(5):329-33. Pubmed: 15196417
Synthesis Reference:Li, Dalin; Ruan, Yi; Song, Wen; Wang, Yongjun. Improved process for producing glucose. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2003), 4 pp
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17634
HMDB IDHMDB00122
Pubchem Compound ID5793
Kegg IDC00031
ChemSpider ID5589
WikipediaDextrose
BioCyc IDALPHA-GLUCOSE
EcoCyc IDALPHA-GLUCOSE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in beta-galactosidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D- galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
Gene Name:
lacZ
Uniprot ID:
P00722
Molecular weight:
116482
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides.
General function:
Involved in xylose isomerase activity
Specific function:
D-xylose = D-xylulose
Gene Name:
xylA
Uniprot ID:
P00944
Molecular weight:
49742
Reactions
D-xylose = D-xylulose.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D- galactose residues in alpha-D-galactosides, including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans and galactolipids
Gene Name:
melA
Uniprot ID:
P06720
Molecular weight:
50657
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-D-galactosides, including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans and galactolipids.
General function:
Involved in beta-galactosidase activity
Specific function:
The wild-type enzyme is an ineffective lactase. Two classes of point mutations dramatically improve activity of the enzyme
Gene Name:
ebgA
Uniprot ID:
P06864
Molecular weight:
117878
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups
Specific function:
General (non sugar-specific) component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS). This major carbohydrate active-transport system catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. Enzyme I transfers the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr)
Gene Name:
ptsI
Uniprot ID:
P08839
Molecular weight:
63561
Reactions
Phosphoenolpyruvate + protein L-histidine = pyruvate + protein N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine.
General function:
Involved in glucokinase activity
Specific function:
Not highly important in E.coli as glucose is transported into the cell by the PTS system already as glucose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
glk
Uniprot ID:
P0A6V8
Molecular weight:
34723
Reactions
ATP + D-glucose = ADP + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the ABC transporter complex MglABC involved in galactose/methyl galactoside import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system (Probable)
Gene Name:
mglA
Uniprot ID:
P0AAG8
Molecular weight:
56415
Reactions
ATP + H(2)O + monosaccharide(Out) = ADP + phosphate + monosaccharide(In).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Can hydrolyze salicin and arbutin
Gene Name:
bglB
Uniprot ID:
P11988
Molecular weight:
53161
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Provides the cells with the ability to utilize trehalose at high osmolarity by splitting it into glucose molecules that can subsequently be taken up by the phosphotransferase-mediated uptake system
Gene Name:
treA
Uniprot ID:
P13482
Molecular weight:
63636
Reactions
Alpha,alpha-trehalose + H(2)O = 2 D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
GDH is probably involved in energy conservation rather than in sugar metabolism
Gene Name:
gcd
Uniprot ID:
P15877
Molecular weight:
86747
Reactions
D-glucose + ubiquinone = D-glucono-1,5-lactone + ubiquinol.
General function:
Involved in 4-alpha-glucanotransferase activity
Specific function:
Transfers a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan to a new position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan
Gene Name:
malQ
Uniprot ID:
P15977
Molecular weight:
78503
Reactions
Transfers a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan to a new position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes a wide variety of P-beta-glucosides including cellobiose-6P, salicin-6P, arbutin-6P, gentiobiose-6P, methyl- beta-glucoside-6P and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside-6P. Is also able to hydrolyze phospho-N,N'-diacetylchitobiose
Gene Name:
chbF
Uniprot ID:
P17411
Molecular weight:
50512
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
MalX encodes a phosphotransferase system enzyme II that can recognize glucose and maltose as substrates even though these sugars may not represent the natural substrates of the system
Gene Name:
malX
Uniprot ID:
P19642
Molecular weight:
56627
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Absolutely required for the growth of E.coli in a high- phosphate medium containing G-1-P as the sole carbon source
Gene Name:
agp
Uniprot ID:
P19926
Molecular weight:
45683
Reactions
Alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate + H(2)O = D-glucose + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May play a role in regulating the intracellular level of maltotriose. Cleaves glucose from the reducing end of maltotriose and longer maltodextrins with a chain length of up to 7 glucose units
Gene Name:
malZ
Uniprot ID:
P21517
Molecular weight:
69172
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Can hydrolyze salicin, cellobiose, and probably arbutin
Gene Name:
ascB
Uniprot ID:
P24240
Molecular weight:
53935
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Alpha,alpha-trehalose 6-phosphate + H(2)O = D- glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
treC
Uniprot ID:
P28904
Molecular weight:
63837
Reactions
Alpha,alpha-trehalose 6-phosphate + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Exhibits hydrolysis activity against alpha-glucosyl fluoride, although natural substrates, such as alpha-glucobioses are scarcely hydrolyzed
Gene Name:
yihQ
Uniprot ID:
P32138
Molecular weight:
77274
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D- glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose
Gene Name:
bglX
Uniprot ID:
P33363
Molecular weight:
83459
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes trehalose to glucose. Could be involved, in cells returning to low osmolarity conditions, in the utilization of the accumulated cytoplasmic trehalose, which was synthesized in response to high osmolarity
Gene Name:
treF
Uniprot ID:
P62601
Molecular weight:
63696
Reactions
Alpha,alpha-trehalose + H(2)O = 2 D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in sugar:hydrogen symporter activity
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in glucose transport
Gene Name:
crr
Uniprot ID:
P69783
Molecular weight:
18251
Reactions
Protein EIIA N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine + protein EIIB = protein EIIA + protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine.
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in glucose transport. This enzyme is also a chemoreceptor monitoring the environment for changes in sugar concentration
Gene Name:
ptsG
Uniprot ID:
P69786
Molecular weight:
50676
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in mannose transport
Gene Name:
manX
Uniprot ID:
P69797
Molecular weight:
35047
Reactions
Protein EIIA N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine + protein EIIB = protein EIIA + protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine.
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of sugar phosphate to sugar and inorganic phosphate. Has a wide substrate specificity catalyzing the hydrolysis of fructose-1-P most efficiently, but it remains uncertain if this is the real substrate in vivo
Gene Name:
supH
Uniprot ID:
P75792
Molecular weight:
30413
Reactions
Sugar phosphate + H(2)O = sugar + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Acetylates maltose and other sugars
Gene Name:
maa
Uniprot ID:
P77791
Molecular weight:
20096
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + maltose = CoA + acetyl-maltose.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
bglA
Uniprot ID:
Q46829
Molecular weight:
55361
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for galactoside. Probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
mglC
Uniprot ID:
P23200
Molecular weight:
35550
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in mannose transport
Gene Name:
manY
Uniprot ID:
P69801
Molecular weight:
27636
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in mannose transport
Gene Name:
manZ
Uniprot ID:
P69805
Molecular weight:
31303
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This protein is involved in the active transport of galactose and glucose. It plays a role in the chemotaxis towards the two sugars by interacting with the trg chemoreceptor
Gene Name:
mglB
Uniprot ID:
P0AEE5
Molecular weight:
35712
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
Specific function:
Aldose sugar dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. The physiological substrate is unknown. Can oxidize glucose to gluconolactone. Can also utilize D-arabinose, L- arabinose and 2-deoxy-glucose. Has higher activity towards oligomeric sugars, such as maltose, maltotriose or cellobiose. It may function to input sugar-derived electrons into the respiratory network
Gene Name:
yliI
Uniprot ID:
P75804
Molecular weight:
41054
General function:
Involved in sugar:hydrogen symporter activity
Specific function:
General (non sugar-specific) component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS). This major carbohydrate active-transport system catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. The phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to the phosphoryl carrier protein HPr by enzyme I. Phospho-HPr then transfers it to the permease (enzymes II/III)
Gene Name:
ptsH
Uniprot ID:
P0AA04
Molecular weight:
9119
Reactions
Protein HPr N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine + protein EIIA = protein HPr + protein EIIA N(tau)-phospho-L-histidine.
General function:
carbohydrate metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
lacZ
Uniprot ID:
G0ZKW2
Molecular weight:
116482
Reactions
=

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the ABC transporter complex MglABC involved in galactose/methyl galactoside import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system (Probable)
Gene Name:
mglA
Uniprot ID:
P0AAG8
Molecular weight:
56415
Reactions
ATP + H(2)O + monosaccharide(Out) = ADP + phosphate + monosaccharide(In).
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
MalX encodes a phosphotransferase system enzyme II that can recognize glucose and maltose as substrates even though these sugars may not represent the natural substrates of the system
Gene Name:
malX
Uniprot ID:
P19642
Molecular weight:
56627
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in glucose transport. This enzyme is also a chemoreceptor monitoring the environment for changes in sugar concentration
Gene Name:
ptsG
Uniprot ID:
P69786
Molecular weight:
50676
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of galactose across the boundary membrane with the concomitant transport of protons into the cell (symport system)
Gene Name:
galP
Uniprot ID:
P0AEP1
Molecular weight:
50982
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Involved in the efflux of sugars. The physiological role may be the detoxification of non-metabolizable sugar analogs. Can transport IPTG, lactose and glucose. Has broad substrate specificity, with preferences for glucosides or galactosides with alkyl or aryl substituents
Gene Name:
setA
Uniprot ID:
P31675
Molecular weight:
42713
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for galactoside. Probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
mglC
Uniprot ID:
P23200
Molecular weight:
35550
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in mannose transport
Gene Name:
manY
Uniprot ID:
P69801
Molecular weight:
27636
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in mannose transport
Gene Name:
manZ
Uniprot ID:
P69805
Molecular weight:
31303
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in porin activity
Specific function:
Involved in the transport of maltose and maltodextrins, indispensable for translocation of dextrins containing more than three glucosyl moieties. A hydrophobic path ("greasy slide") of aromatic residues serves to guide and select the sugars for transport through the channel. Also acts as a receptor for several bacteriophages including lambda
Gene Name:
lamB
Uniprot ID:
P02943
Molecular weight:
49912
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This protein is involved in the active transport of galactose and glucose. It plays a role in the chemotaxis towards the two sugars by interacting with the trg chemoreceptor
Gene Name:
mglB
Uniprot ID:
P0AEE5
Molecular weight:
35712
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368