Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:57:08 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:12 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB02812
Identification
Name:alpha-Ketoglutarate
Description:Alpha-ketoglutarate is a member of the chemical class known as Gamma Keto-Acids and Derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the C4 carbon atom. Alpha-ketoglutarate is invovled in pentose and glucuronate interconversions, C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism, Vitamin B6 metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, Butanoate metabolism, Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, Lysine biosynthesis, Biosynthesis of terpenoids and steroids, and the Citrate cycle (TCA cycle). Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid. (The term ketoglutaric acid, when not further qualified, almost always refers to the alpha variant. Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid varies only by the position of the ketone functional group, and is much less common. Its anion, alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG, also called oxo-glutarate) is an important biological compound. It is the keto acid produced by de-amination of glutamate, and is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle. (WikiPedia)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 2-Ketoglutarate
  • 2-Ketoglutaric acid
  • 2-OG
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioate
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxoglutarate
  • 2-Oxoglutarate(2-)
  • 2-Oxoglutaric acid
  • 2-Oxoglutaric acid(2-)
  • 2-Oxopentanedioate
  • 2-Oxopentanedioate, ion(2-)
  • 2-Oxopentanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxopentanedioic acid, ion(2-)
  • a-Ketoglutarate
  • a-Ketoglutaric acid
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate
  • Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid
  • Oxoglutarate
  • Oxoglutaric acid
  • Pentanedioate, 2-oxo-, ion(2-)
  • Pentanedioic acid, 2-oxo-, ion(2-)
  • α-Ketoglutarate
  • α-Ketoglutaric acid
Chemical Formula:C5H4O5
Weight:Average: 144.0823
Monoisotopic: 144.005873238
InChI Key:KPGXRSRHYNQIFN-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI:InChI=1S/C5H6O5/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/p-2
CAS number:Not Available
IUPAC Name:2-oxopentanedioate
Traditional IUPAC Name:α ketoglutarate
SMILES:[O-]C(=O)CCC(=O)C([O-])=O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as gamma-keto acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the C4 carbon atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentGamma-keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gamma-keto acid
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic anion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Not Available
Charge:-2
Melting point:Not Available
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility56.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.45ALOGPS
logP-0.11ChemAxon
logS-0.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.66ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area97.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity50.56 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Coenzyme A + NAD > Carbon dioxide + NADH + Succinyl-CoA
N-Acetylornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamate + Pyruvic acid
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + NADPH >2 L-Glutamate + NADP
Ketoleucine + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Leucine
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Phenylalanine <> L-Glutamate + Phenylpyruvic acid
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Tyrosine <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen + Taurine <> Aminoacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion + Sulfite + Succinic acid
L-Glutamate + 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + Phosphoserine
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Aspartic acid <> L-Glutamate + Oxalacetic acid
Isocitric acid + NADP <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Carbon dioxide + NADPH
alpha-Ketoglutarate + N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine <> L-Glutamate + N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonium
L-Glutamate + Imidazole acetol-phosphate <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Histidinol phosphate
L-Glutamate + UDP-4-Keto-pyranose <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Hydrogen ion + Isochorismate <> 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate + Carbon dioxide
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Putrescine > 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate <> L-Glutamate + N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Isoleucine <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Valine <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + dTDP-D-Fucosamine
2 L-Glutamate + NAD <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
2 L-Glutamate + NADP <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamate + NAD + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamate + NADP + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
L-Alanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Isocitric acid + NADP <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Oxalosuccinic acid <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Carbon dioxide
L-Aspartic acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Thiamine pyrophosphate <> 3-carboxy-1-hydroxypropylthiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxide
L-Phenylalanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Tyrosine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Cysteine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid + DL-Glutamic acid
beta-Alanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Leucine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-Glutamate + Ketoleucine
Putrescine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Valine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Isoleucine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
N-Acetylornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Cysteic acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
3-Sulfinoalanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Sulfinylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Histidinol phosphate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamate
Phosphoserine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate + L-Glutamate
L-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamate
O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate
Taurine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen <> Sulfite + Aminoacetaldehyde + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide
2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate <> L-Methionine + alpha-Ketoglutarate
UDP-4-Keto-pyranose + L-Glutamate <> Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose + alpha-Ketoglutarate
Isochorismate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 2-Succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate + Carbon dioxide
alpha-Ketoglutarate <> [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] S-succinyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxide
Phosphoserine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate + 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid
Ethylenediamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + 4-Aminobutyraldehyde <> 1-Pyrroline + L-Glutamate + Water
2 L-Glutamate + NADP + Ammonia + Water <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
dTDP-D-Fucosamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate
Aromatic amino acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Aromatic oxo acid + L-Glutamate
3-Phospho-D-glycerate + NAD + D-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + NADH + Hydrogen ion + alpha-Ketoglutarate
Isocitric acid + NADP + Oxalosuccinic acid <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
More...

SMPDB Pathways:
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolismPW000769 Pw000769Pw000769 greyscalePw000769 simple
Glutathione metabolismPW000833 Pw000833Pw000833 greyscalePw000833 simple
Lysine biosynthesisPW000771 Pw000771Pw000771 greyscalePw000771 simple
Nitrogen metabolismPW000755 Pw000755Pw000755 greyscalePw000755 simple
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesisPW000828 Pw000828Pw000828 greyscalePw000828 simple
Phenylalanine metabolismPW000921 Pw000921Pw000921 greyscalePw000921 simple
Propanoate metabolismPW000940 Pw000940Pw000940 greyscalePw000940 simple
Sulfur metabolismPW000922 Pw000922Pw000922 greyscalePw000922 simple
Tryptophan metabolismPW000815 Pw000815Pw000815 greyscalePw000815 simple
beta-Alanine metabolismPW000896 Pw000896Pw000896 greyscalePw000896 simple
KEGG Pathways:
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism ec00250
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism ec00520
  • Arginine and proline metabolism ec00330
  • Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism ec00053
  • Butanoate metabolism ec00650
  • C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism ec00660
  • Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms ec00710
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) ec00020
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism ec00270
  • D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism ec00471
  • Glucosinolate biosynthesis ec00966
  • Glutathione metabolism ec00480
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism ec00260
  • Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism ec00630
  • Histidine metabolism ec00340
  • Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis ec00950
  • Lysine biosynthesis ec00300
  • Lysine degradation ec00310
  • Metabolic pathways eco01100
  • Methane metabolism ec00680
  • Microbial metabolism in diverse environments ec01120
  • Nitrogen metabolism ec00910
  • Novobiocin biosynthesis ec00401
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis ec00770
  • Pentose and glucuronate interconversions ec00040
  • Phenylalanine metabolism ec00360
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis ec00400
  • Propanoate metabolism ec00640
  • Reductive carboxylate cycle (CO2 fixation) ec00720
  • Sulfur metabolism ec00920
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism ec00430
  • Tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis ec00960
  • Tryptophan metabolism ec00380
  • Tyrosine metabolism ec00350
  • Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis ec00130
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis ec00290
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation ec00280
  • Vitamin B6 metabolism ec00750
  • beta-Alanine metabolism ec00410
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-da0cb6c20458b87b3653View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-3900000000-422a5a72c9bb005a61caView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0570-9200000000-a8a32be3a2643778852fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-c9bc4bf076ca25e8f08eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-5900000000-c6e0189e12012dfa6430View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-fcfd4e27706409ebc8e5View in MoNA
References
References:
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16810
HMDB IDHMDB00208
Pubchem Compound ID164533
Kegg IDC00026
ChemSpider ID144236
WikipediaOxoglutarate
BioCyc IDNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
gdhA
Uniprot ID:
P00370
Molecular weight:
48581
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
aspC
Uniprot ID:
P00509
Molecular weight:
43573
Reactions
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
tyrB
Uniprot ID:
P04693
Molecular weight:
43537
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3- (imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
hisC
Uniprot ID:
P06986
Molecular weight:
39360
Reactions
L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-(imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Isocitrate + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH
Gene Name:
icd
Uniprot ID:
P08200
Molecular weight:
45756
Reactions
Isocitrate + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + CO(2) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltB
Uniprot ID:
P09831
Molecular weight:
166708
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltD
Uniprot ID:
P09832
Molecular weight:
52015
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes
Gene Name:
lpdA
Uniprot ID:
P0A9P0
Molecular weight:
50688
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD(+) = protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH.
General function:
Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
Specific function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:2- oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
sucA
Uniprot ID:
P0AFG3
Molecular weight:
105061
Reactions
2-oxoglutarate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] lipoyllysine = [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] S-succinyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:2- oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
sucB
Uniprot ID:
P0AFG6
Molecular weight:
44011
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine = CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-succinyldihydrolipoyl)lysine.
General function:
Involved in thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the thiamine diphosphate-dependent decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate and the subsequent addition of the resulting succinic semialdehyde-thiamine pyrophosphate anion to isochorismate to yield 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3- cyclohexene-1-carboxylate (SEPHCHC)
Gene Name:
menD
Uniprot ID:
P17109
Molecular weight:
61367
Reactions
Isochorismate + 2-oxoglutarate = 5-enolpyruvoyl-6-hydroxy-2-succinyl-cyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in both the arginine and lysine biosynthetic pathways
Gene Name:
argD
Uniprot ID:
P18335
Molecular weight:
43767
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate + 2-oxoglutarate = N-succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
gabT
Uniprot ID:
P22256
Molecular weight:
45774
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3- phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4- phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine. Is involved in both pyridoxine and serine biosynthesis
Gene Name:
serC
Uniprot ID:
P23721
Molecular weight:
39783
Reactions
O-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-phosphonooxypyruvate + L-glutamate.
4-phosphonooxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of taurine and alpha ketoglutarate to sulfite, aminoacetaldehyde and succinate. Required for the utilization of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) as an alternative sulfur source. Pentane-sulfonic acid, 3- (N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid and 1,3-dioxo-2- isoindolineethanesulfonic acid are also substrates for this enzyme
Gene Name:
tauD
Uniprot ID:
P37610
Molecular weight:
32409
Reactions
Taurine + 2-oxoglutarate + O(2) = sulfite + aminoacetaldehyde + succinate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the aminotransferase reaction from putrescine to 2-oxoglutarate, leading to glutamate and 4-aminobutanal, which spontaneously cyclizes to form 1-pyrroline. Is also able to transaminate cadaverine and, in lower extent, spermidine, but not ornithine. Alpha-ketobutyrate and pyruvate can also act as amino acceptors, although much less efficiently
Gene Name:
patA
Uniprot ID:
P42588
Molecular weight:
49661
Reactions
Putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + 1-pyrroline + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via transamination of gamma-aminobutyrate
Gene Name:
puuE
Uniprot ID:
P50457
Molecular weight:
44729
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transamination of N(2)-succinylornithine and alpha-ketoglutarate into N(2)-succinylglutamate semialdehyde and glutamate. Can also act as an acetylornithine aminotransferase
Gene Name:
astC
Uniprot ID:
P77581
Molecular weight:
43665
Reactions
N(2)-succinyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-succinyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP- Ara4O) to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides
Gene Name:
arnB
Uniprot ID:
P77690
Molecular weight:
41649
Reactions
UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-beta-L-arabinose + 2-oxoglutarate = UDP-beta-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
yfbQ
Uniprot ID:
P0A959
Molecular weight:
45517
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acts on leucine, isoleucine and valine
Gene Name:
ilvE
Uniprot ID:
P0AB80
Molecular weight:
34093
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in ECA elongation
Gene Name:
rffA
Uniprot ID:
P27833
Molecular weight:
41901
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
yfdZ
Uniprot ID:
P77434
Molecular weight:
46216
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of alpha-ketoglutarate across the boundary membrane with the concomitant import of a cation (symport system)
Gene Name:
kgtP
Uniprot ID:
P0AEX3
Molecular weight:
47052
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368