Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 09:55:45 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:05 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00039
Identification
Name:Butyric acid
Description:Butyric acid, also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as butyrates or butanoates. Butyrate is produced as end-product of a fermentation process solely performed by obligate anaerobic bacteria.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 1-Butanoate
  • 1-Butanoic acid
  • 1-Butyrate
  • 1-Butyric acid
  • 1-Propanecarboxylate
  • 1-Propanecarboxylic acid
  • Butanate
  • Butanic acid
  • Butanoate
  • Butanoic acid
  • Buttersaeure
  • Butyrate
  • Butyric acid
  • Ethylacetate
  • Ethylacetic acid
  • Honey robber
  • Kyselina maselna
  • N-Butanoate
  • N-Butanoic acid
  • N-Butyrate
  • N-Butyric acid
  • Propanecarboxylate
  • Propanecarboxylic acid
  • Propylformate
  • Propylformic acid
Chemical Formula:C4H8O2
Weight:Average: 88.1051
Monoisotopic: 88.0524295
InChI Key:FERIUCNNQQJTOY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C4H8O2/c1-2-3-4(5)6/h2-3H2,1H3,(H,5,6)
CAS number:107-92-6
IUPAC Name:butanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:butyric acid
SMILES:CCCC(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassFatty Acyls
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Liquid
Charge:-1
Melting point:-5.7 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:60.0 mg/mL [HEMPHILL,L & SWANSON,WS (1964)]PhysProp
LogP:0.79 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility239.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.78ALOGPS
logP0.92ChemAxon
logS0.43ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity21.87 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.22 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:
fatty acid oxidation (Butanoate)PW001017 Pw001017Pw001017 greyscalePw001017 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03dl-9000000000-6dc57ea0c6b21d3f8aa1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03dl-9000000000-032fc35b394786b5896aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-7f461db56bfd8568ec71View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-66f857fa612f773837bcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-e6689b2e6bf21570b934View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-b2ffa7d67b2466dea94fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-7467bf19c64fd3f51105View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9ae015043b014b3c93d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-e30b3c6bd6218b9b49e1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-efbb0e35a19a1713240bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9ae015043b014b3c93d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-e30b3c6bd6218b9b49e1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-efbb0e35a19a1713240bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-acb5cf0017a9ee680dd8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-812e24462a71dccb0fecView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-f9d30338ca1ee9409964View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9d749b6b6cf2f93a8f85View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00ku-9000000000-ee742730266fb4997777View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-88fc445cddcb726e93d8View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-9000000000-5338ff8a9c4e59150abaView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Bauer G, Hofler P, Simon M: Epstein-Barr virus induction by a serum factor. Characterization of the purified factor and the mechanism of its activation. J Biol Chem. 1982 Oct 10;257(19):11411-5. Pubmed: 6288683
  • Bauer G: Induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigens by corticosteroids: inhibition by TPA and retinoic acid. Int J Cancer. 1983 Mar 15;31(3):291-5. Pubmed: 6826253
  • Cruz HG, Ivanova T, Lunn ML, Stoffel M, Slesinger PA, Luscher C: Bi-directional effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Feb;7(2):153-9. Epub 2004 Jan 25. Pubmed: 14745451
  • Jacobasch G, Jacobasch KH: [Molecular etiology of colorectal carcinogenesis, clinical manifestations and therapy] Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich. 1997 Mar;91(2):125-33. Pubmed: 9244653
  • Jin SE, Ban E, Kim YB, Kim CK: Development of HPLC method for the determination of levosulpiride in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Jun 29;35(4):929-36. Pubmed: 15193738
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kawanishi M, Ito Y: Effect of short-chain fatty acids on Epstein-Barr virus early and viral capsid antigen induction in P3HR-1 cells. Cancer Lett. 1980 Dec;11(2):129-32. Pubmed: 6257378
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kurita-Ochiai T, Ochiai K, Suzuki N, Otsuka K, Fukushima K: Human gingival fibroblasts rescue butyric acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. Infect Immun. 2002 May;70(5):2361-7. Pubmed: 11953371
  • Kurita-Ochiai T, Seto S, Ochiai K: Role of cell-cell communication in inhibiting butyric acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. Infect Immun. 2004 Oct;72(10):5947-54. Pubmed: 15385498
  • McIntosh GH, Noakes M, Royle PJ, Foster PR: Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):967-74. Pubmed: 12663299
  • McMillan L, Butcher SK, Pongracz J, Lord JM: Opposing effects of butyrate and bile acids on apoptosis of human colon adenoma cells: differential activation of PKC and MAP kinases. Br J Cancer. 2003 Mar 10;88(5):748-53. Pubmed: 12618885
  • Rephaeli A, Blank-Porat D, Tarasenko N, Entin-Meer M, Levovich I, Cutts SM, Phillips DR, Malik Z, Nudelman A: In vivo and in vitro antitumor activity of butyroyloxymethyl-diethyl phosphate (AN-7), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in human prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2005 Aug 20;116(2):226-35. Pubmed: 15800932
  • Schwiertz A, Lehmann U, Jacobasch G, Blaut M: Influence of resistant starch on the SCFA production and cell counts of butyrate-producing Eubacterium spp. in the human intestine. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;93(1):157-62. Pubmed: 12067385
  • Sengupta S, Muir JG, Gibson PR: Does butyrate protect from colorectal cancer? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jan;21(1 Pt 2):209-18. Pubmed: 16460475
  • Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  • Stein TP, Koerner B, Schluter MD, Leskiw MJ, Gaprindachvilli T, Richards EW, Cope FO, Condolucci D: Weight loss, the gut and the inflammatory response in aids patients. Cytokine. 1997 Feb;9(2):143-7. Pubmed: 9071566
  • Teichert J, Tuemmers T, Achenbach H, Preiss C, Hermann R, Ruus P, Preiss R: Pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in subjects with severe kidney damage and end-stage renal disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;45(3):313-28. Pubmed: 15703366
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Velazquez OC, Lederer HM, Rombeau JL: Butyrate and the colonocyte. Production, absorption, metabolism, and therapeutic implications. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;427:123-34. Pubmed: 9361838
  • Welters CF, Heineman E, Thunnissen FB, van den Bogaard AE, Soeters PB, Baeten CG: Effect of dietary inulin supplementation on inflammation of pouch mucosa in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002 May;45(5):621-7. Pubmed: 12004211
  • Yonemura K, Sairenji T, Hinuma Y: Inhibitory effect of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine on synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus. Microbiol Immunol. 1981;25(6):557-63. Pubmed: 6268944
  • Yurtsever D. (2007). Fatty acid methyl ester profiling of Enterococcus and Esherichia coli for microbial source tracking. M.sc. Thesis. Villanova University: U.S.A
Synthesis Reference:Shan, Zhiping. Preparation of butyric acid by hydrogenation of maleic anhydride. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2008), 6pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID30772
HMDB IDHMDB00039
Pubchem Compound ID264
Kegg IDC00246
ChemSpider ID259
WikipediaButyric_acid
BioCyc IDBUTYRIC_ACID
EcoCyc IDBUTYRIC_ACID
Ligand ExpoBUA

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
atoD
Uniprot ID:
P76458
Molecular weight:
23526
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
atoA
Uniprot ID:
P76459
Molecular weight:
22960
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the esterification, concomitant with transport, of exogenous fatty acids into metabolically active CoA thioesters for subsequent degradation or incorporation into phospholipids. It has a low activity on medium or long chain fatty acids and is maximally active on C6 and C8 substrates
Gene Name:
fadK
Uniprot ID:
P38135
Molecular weight:
60773
Reactions
ATP + a short-chain carboxylic acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Responsible for the intake of short-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
atoE
Uniprot ID:
P76460
Molecular weight:
47527