Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 14:02:20 -0600
Update Date2015-06-03 15:54:37 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB04017
Identification
Name:gamma-Aminobutyric acid
Description:Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a metabolite of glutamate. Gamma-aminobutyric acid was first synthesized in 1883, and was first known only as a plant and microbial metabolic product. In 1950, however, GABA was discovered to be an integral part of the mammalian central nervous system. Organisms synthesize GABA from glutamate using the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and pyridoxal phosphate (which is the active form of vitamin B6) as a cofactor. (Wikipedia)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • γ-amino-N-butyrate
  • γ-amino-n-butyric acid
  • γ-aminobutyrate
  • γ-aminobutyric acid
  • 3-Carboxypropylamine
  • 4-AB
  • 4-amino-n-butyric acid
  • 4-Amino-N-butyrate
  • 4-Amino-N-butyric acid
  • 4-Aminobutanoate
  • 4-Aminobutanoic acid
  • 4-Aminobutyrate
  • 4-Aminobutyric acid
  • 4-NH2-but
  • 4-NH3-but
  • Aminalon
  • g Aminobutyrate
  • g Aminobutyric acid
  • G-Amino-N-butyrate
  • G-Amino-N-butyric acid
  • g-Aminobutyrate
  • g-Aminobutyric acid
  • GABA
  • Gaballon
  • Gamarex
  • Gamma Aminobutyrate
  • Gamma Aminobutyric acid
  • Gamma-Amino-N-butyrate
  • Gamma-Amino-N-butyric acid
  • Gamma-Aminobutyrate
  • Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
  • Gammalon
  • Gammalone
  • Gammar
  • Gammasol
  • Mielogen
  • Mielomade
  • Omega-Aminobutyrate
  • Omega-Aminobutyric acid
  • Piperidate
  • Piperidic acid
  • Piperidinate
  • Piperidinic acid
  • W-Aminobutyrate
  • W-Aminobutyric acid
  • γ Aminobutyrate
  • γ Aminobutyric acid
  • γ-amino-N-Butyrate
  • γ-amino-N-Butyric acid
  • γ-Aminobutyrate
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid
Chemical Formula:C4H9NO2
Weight:Average: 103.1198
Monoisotopic: 103.063328537
InChI Key:BTCSSZJGUNDROE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C4H9NO2/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7/h1-3,5H2,(H,6,7)
CAS number:56-12-2
IUPAC Name:4-aminobutanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:gamma(amino)-butyric acid
SMILES:NCCCC(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as gamma amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the gamma carbon atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentGamma amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gamma amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:203 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:1300.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.17 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility365.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.55ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity25.46 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Water + NAD <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid +2 Hydrogen ion + NADH
L-Glutamate <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen ion
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen ion
Oxoglutaric acid + gamma-Aminobutyric acid <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate > Carbon dioxide + gamma-Aminobutyric acid
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH
L-Glutamate > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
L-Glutamate > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > L-Glutamic acid + gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Water + NAD > Hydrogen ion + NADH + gamma-Aminobutyric acid
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
SMPDB Pathways:
4-aminobutanoate degradation IPW002068 Pw002068Pw002068 greyscalePw002068 simple
Propanoate metabolismPW000940 Pw000940Pw000940 greyscalePw000940 simple
Putrescine Degradation IIPW002054 Pw002054Pw002054 greyscalePw002054 simple
arginine metabolismPW000790 Pw000790Pw000790 greyscalePw000790 simple
beta-Alanine metabolismPW000896 Pw000896Pw000896 greyscalePw000896 simple
ornithine metabolismPW000791 Pw000791Pw000791 greyscalePw000791 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
44± 0 uMBW2511348 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 10 mM NaCl, 45 mM (NH4)2SO4, supplemented with 1 mM MgSO4, 1 mg/l thiamine·HCl, 5.6 mg/l CaCl2, 8 mg/l FeCl3, 1 mg/l MnCl2·4H2O, 1.7 mg/l ZnCl2, 0.43 mg/l CuCl2·2H2O, 0.6 mg/l CoCl2·2H2O and 0.6 mg/l Na2MoO4·2H2O. 4 g/L GlucoStationary Phase, glucose limitedBioreactor, pH controlled, O2 and CO2 controlled, dilution rate: 0.2/h37 oCPMID: 17379776
Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-1900000000-f831f79dfcaeffa8b177View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-2de9d92a2cfc7bc655f4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-73bbf2ee0803f058dbedView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1901000000-85d4bd98af8534428b5aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-0900000000-6be23968e972a414be51View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00di-1900000000-9a224763afd8ca892addView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9800000000-d8906d09ca1872a6391cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1900000000-54db7e21790401045519View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1901000000-b047af158215c2b5b8e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-d5f55a414ff1e8c65d9dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-001i-9000000000-21ea76dfb0da62031f1dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-00di-0901000000-5d60b0a446fd8122f613View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00dj-1900000000-f831f79dfcaeffa8b177View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-1900000000-2de9d92a2cfc7bc655f4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-1900000000-73bbf2ee0803f058dbedView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-1901000000-85d4bd98af8534428b5aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-6be23968e972a414be51View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-1900000000-9a224763afd8ca892addView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-9800000000-d8906d09ca1872a6391cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-54db7e21790401045519View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-00di-1901000000-b047af158215c2b5b8e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00dj-1900000000-1219470a0be188da64e6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-f7117dfaf9d856c95919View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0006-1900000000-e35585a985d8128d044eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0fk9-9700000000-4b2809309587240dd479View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uxr-8900000000-ce0d8f44422836cd9965View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0005-9000000000-8ce5afb97d7c08821da3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0005-9100000000-32c433b2c916697690f8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-5831aaabdf53f3132ae5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9babfd4a6937ecba7318View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e1c0c1485d846e9b123bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-647d55ecf98850e7a875View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-7c107641a38922c88fcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-86718b349efad6334e3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-a1e84e55e4b6c6628d5dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0009000000-29c22bf0ed844d09c0afView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-1d00adad47e42c60c340View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-47b195fb74720cc99464View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a14a52dc59bf9988bb44View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-5900000000-20c55b2809389d5ad83bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-eca4c5aefca98751a11eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-014j-9000000000-f0783316e09291749409View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-81837eb9c0b926cb0e81View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-8b48126992d7fa242636View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-7d4636efbc4e5d75872eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9100000000-655f9d93a35bfa537583View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ku-9000000000-4a334d5e272576f62403View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4a13b03446b3370ccd43View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9100000000-655f9d93a35bfa537583View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ku-9000000000-4a334d5e272576f62403View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-dbf4f9e19a35f953a189View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Campollo O, MacGillivray BB, McIntyre N: [Association of plasma ammonia and GABA levels and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy] Rev Invest Clin. 1992 Oct-Dec;44(4):483-90. Pubmed: 1485027
  • Choi C, Coupland NJ, Hanstock CC, Ogilvie CJ, Higgins AC, Gheorghiu D, Allen PS: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid measurement by proton double-quantum filtering with selective J rewinding. Magn Reson Med. 2005 Aug;54(2):272-9. Pubmed: 16032672
  • Denda M, Inoue K, Inomata S, Denda S: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (A) receptor agonists accelerate cutaneous barrier recovery and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Nov;119(5):1041-7. Pubmed: 12445190
  • Hasler G, Neumeister A, van der Veen JW, Tumonis T, Bain EE, Shen J, Drevets WC, Charney DS: Normal prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in remitted depressed subjects determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Dec 15;58(12):969-73. Epub 2005 Jul 25. Pubmed: 16043137
  • Ishii, N., Nakahigashi, K., Baba, T., Robert, M., Soga, T., Kanai, A., Hirasawa, T., Naba, M., Hirai, K., Hoque, A., Ho, P. Y., Kakazu, Y., Sugawara, K., Igarashi, S., Harada, S., Masuda, T., Sugiyama, N., Togashi, T., Hasegawa, M., Takai, Y., Yugi, K., Arakawa, K., Iwata, N., Toya, Y., Nakayama, Y., Nishioka, T., Shimizu, K., Mori, H., Tomita, M. (2007). "Multiple high-throughput analyses monitor the response of E. coli to perturbations." Science 316:593-597. Pubmed: 17379776
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Levy LM, Henkin RI: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid levels are decreased in patients with phantageusia and phantosmia demonstrated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):721-7. Pubmed: 15538143
  • Levy LM, Levy-Reis I, Fujii M, Dalakas MC: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid changes in stiff-person syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jun;62(6):970-4. Pubmed: 15956168
  • Metzeler K, Agoston A, Gratzl M: An Intrinsic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the adrenal cortex: findings from human and rat adrenal glands and the NCI-H295R cell line. Endocrinology. 2004 May;145(5):2402-11. Epub 2004 Jan 15. Pubmed: 14726441
  • Naini AB, Vontzalidou E, Cote LJ: Isocratic HPLC assay with electrochemical detection of free gamma-aminobutyric acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1993 Feb;39(2):247-50. Pubmed: 8432013
  • Nicholson-Guthrie CS, Guthrie GD, Sutton GP, Baenziger JC: Urine GABA levels in ovarian cancer patients: elevated GABA in malignancy. Cancer Lett. 2001 Jan 10;162(1):27-30. Pubmed: 11121859
  • Nisijima K, Ishiguro T: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites and gamma-aminobutyric acid in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. J Psychiatr Res. 1995 May-Jun;29(3):233-44. Pubmed: 7473299
  • Rating D, Siemes H, Loscher W: Low CSF GABA concentration in children with febrile convulsions, untreated epilepsy, and meningitis. J Neurol. 1983;230(4):217-25. Pubmed: 6198481
  • Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  • Spanaki MV, Siegel H, Kopylev L, Fazilat S, Dean A, Liow K, Ben-Menachem E, Gaillard WD, Theodore WH: The effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl GABA) on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1518-22. Pubmed: 10534261
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Vijayendran, C., Barsch, A., Friehs, K., Niehaus, K., Becker, A., Flaschel, E. (2008). "Perceiving molecular evolution processes in Escherichia coli by comprehensive metabolite and gene expression profiling." Genome Biol 9:R72. Pubmed: 18402659
  • Wiens SC, Trudeau VL: Thyroid hormone and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interactions in neuroendocrine systems. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Jul;144(3):332-44. Epub 2006 Mar 9. Pubmed: 16527506
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Zarnowska ED, Pearce RA, Saad AA, Perouansky M: The gamma-subunit governs the susceptibility of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors to block by the nonimmobilizer 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6, 2N). Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):401-6, table of contents. Pubmed: 16037152
Synthesis Reference:Minoshima, Ryoichi. Preparation of gamma-aminobutyric acid with unripened beans. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 25pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16865
HMDB IDHMDB00112
Pubchem Compound ID119
Kegg IDC00334
ChemSpider ID116
WikipediaGABA
BioCyc ID4-AMINO-BUTYRATE
EcoCyc ID4-AMINO-BUTYRATE
Ligand ExpoABU

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
gabT
Uniprot ID:
P22256
Molecular weight:
45774
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via transamination of gamma-aminobutyrate
Gene Name:
puuE
Uniprot ID:
P50457
Molecular weight:
44729
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadA
Uniprot ID:
P69908
Molecular weight:
52685
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadB
Uniprot ID:
P69910
Molecular weight:
52668
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via hydrolysis of the gamma-glutamyl linkage of gamma-glutamyl-gamma- aminobutyrate
Gene Name:
puuD
Uniprot ID:
P76038
Molecular weight:
28013
Reactions
4-(L-gamma-glutamylamino)butanoate + H(2)O = 4-aminobutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline, which is spontaneously formed from 4-aminobutanal, leading to 4- aminobutanoate (GABA). Can also oxidize n-alkyl medium-chain aldehydes, but with a lower catalytic efficiency
Gene Name:
ydcW
Uniprot ID:
P77674
Molecular weight:
50830
Reactions
4-aminobutanal + NAD(+) + H(2)O = 4-aminobutanoate + NADH.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Transporter for GABA
Gene Name:
gabP
Uniprot ID:
P25527
Molecular weight:
51080
General function:
Involved in amino acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in glutamate-dependent acid resistance. Imports glutamate inside the cell while simultaneously exporting to the periplasm the GABA produced by gadA and gadB. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadC
Uniprot ID:
P63235
Molecular weight:
55076
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368