Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 10:27:22 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:08 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00547
Identification
Name:Magnesium
Description:Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal. Due to the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those which use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA. ATP exists in cells normally as a chelate of ATP and a magnesium ion. (Wikipedia)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Magnesium
  • Magnesium ion
  • Magnesium ions
  • MG++
  • MG+2
  • Mg++
  • Mg+2
Chemical Formula:Mg
Weight:Average: 24.305
Monoisotopic: 23.985041898
InChI Key:JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/Mg/q+2
CAS number:7439-95-4
IUPAC Name:magnesium(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name:magnesium(2+) ion
SMILES:[Mg++]
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:2
Melting point:651 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:
Acetate metabolismPW002090 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Flavin biosynthesisPW001971 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Folate biosynthesisPW000908 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
GTP degradationPW001888 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Lipoic acid metabolismPW000770 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
PRPP BiosynthesisPW000909 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Porphyrin metabolismPW000936 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Propanoate metabolismPW000940 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pyrimidine metabolismPW000942 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradtionPW002024 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesisPW000837 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Glyoxylate cyclePW000967 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Ubiquinol biosynthesisPW000981 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Ubiquinol biosynthesis 2PW002036 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesisPW000959 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis 2PW002045 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis 3PW002046 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary metabolites: Trehalose Biosynthesis and MetabolismPW000968 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary metabolites: isoprenoid biosynthesis (nonmevalonate pathway)PW000975 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary metabolites: methylerythritol phosphate and polyisoprenoid biosynthesisPW000958 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Spermidine Biosynthesis IPW002040 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Spermidine biosynthesis and metabolismPW002085 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Starch and sucrose metabolismPW000941 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Sulfur metabolismPW000922 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Thiamin diphosphate biosynthesisPW002028 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
adenine and adenosine salvage IIIPW002072 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fructose metabolismPW000913 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolismPW000914 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism IIPW000915 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism III (sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine)PW000916 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism IV (glycerophosphoglycerol)PW000917 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism V (glycerophosphoserine)PW000918 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycolate and glyoxylate degradation IIPW002021 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis IPW000906 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis I 2PW002062 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine deoxyribonucleosides degradationPW002077 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesisPW000910 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis 1435709748PW000960 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis 2PW002033 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine ribonucleosides degradationPW002076 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradationPW002104 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transferPW002087 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
salvage pathways of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotidesPW002061 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (butanesulfonate)PW000923 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (ethanesulfonate)PW000925 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (isethionate)PW000926 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (methanesulfonate)PW000927 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (propanesulfonate)PW000924 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
trehalose biosynthesis IPW002088 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
430± 20 uMML35Modified minimal medium with 0.4 mM Mg++Stationary PhaseShake flask37 oCPMID: 5341484
780± 30 uMML35Modified minimal medium with 0.8 mM Mg++Stationary PhaseShake flask37 oCPMID: 5341484
10000± 0 uMK-12Not AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableNot Available1. Cybercell Database: http://ccdb.wishartlab.com/CCDB/cgi-bin/STAT_NEW.cgi
2. Phillips R., Kondev, J., Theriot, J. (2008) “Physical Biology of the Cell” Garland Science, New York, NY.
Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:Not Available
References
References:
  • Abbasciano V, Sartori S, Trevisani L, Girometti R, Ranzini M, Nielsen I, Mazzotta D, Vecchiatti G, Bononi A, Guglielmini C: Comparison of magnesium concentration in serum, erythrocytes and gastric tissue in two groups of patients affected by chronic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori negative and positive. Magnes Res. 2003 Dec;16(4):281-6. Pubmed: 14979638
  • Bologa C, Rusu M, Ianovici N, Tetraru C, Hurjui J, Petris O, Lionte C: [Role of calcium and magnesium ions in cerebrospinal fluid in alcoholic-traumatic coma] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2003 Oct-Dec;107(4):809-12. Pubmed: 14756024
  • Bryant RE, Crouse R, Deagen JT: Zinc, iron, copper, selenium, lactoferrin, and ferritin in human pus. Am J Med Sci. 2004 Feb;327(2):73-6. Pubmed: 14770022
  • Fowler AJ, Moskowitz DG, Wong A, Cohen SP, Williams ML, Heyman MB: Nutritional status and gastrointestinal structure and function in children with ichthyosis and growth failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004 Feb;38(2):164-9. Pubmed: 14734878
  • Gortzak-Uzan L, Mezad D, Smolin A, Friger M, Huleihel M, Hallak M: Increasing amniotic fluid magnesium concentrations with stable maternal serum levels: a prospective clinical trial. J Reprod Med. 2005 Nov;50(11):817-20. Pubmed: 16419627
  • Guo H, Cheng J, Lee JD, Ueda T, Shan J, Wang J: Relationship between the degree of intracellular magnesium deficiency and the frequency of chest pain in women with variant angina. Herz. 2004 May;29(3):299-303. Pubmed: 15167956
  • Guo H, Lee JD, Guo M, Lu Y, Tang F, Ueda T: Status of intracellular and extracellular magnesium concentration in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Acta Cardiol. 2005 Jun;60(3):259-63. Pubmed: 15999464
  • Hurwitz, C., Rosano, C. L. (1967). "The intracellular concentration of bound and unbound magnesium ions in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 242:3719-3722. Pubmed: 5341484
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kedzierska E: [Concentrations of selected bioelements and toxic metals and their influence on health status of children and youth residing in Szczecin] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2003;49:131-43. Pubmed: 15552844
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kielczykowska M, Pasternak K, Musik I: The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2003;58(2):281-4. Pubmed: 15323205
  • Korycinska A, Dabrowski W, Rzecki Z, Dragan M, Pozarowski P, Wronska J, Stazka J, Pasternak K, Rolinski J: The degree of lymphocytic mitochondrial transmembrane potential and blood magnesium concentrations during coronary artery bypass grafting. Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):253-60. Pubmed: 16548140
  • Mendez DR, Corbett R, Macias C, Laptook A: Total and ionized plasma magnesium concentrations in children after traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2005 Mar;57(3):347-52. Epub 2004 Dec 7. Pubmed: 15585675
  • Miyamoto Y, Yamamoto H, Murakami H, Kamiyama N, Fukuda M: Studies on cerebrospinal fluid ionized calcium and magnesium concentrations in convulsive children. Pediatr Int. 2004 Aug;46(4):394-7. Pubmed: 15310301
  • Nielsen FH, Milne DB: A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):703-10. Pubmed: 15116072
  • Postnikova LB, Alekseeva OP, Kubysheva NI, Gorshkova TN, Ishanova OS: [Significance of biochemical parameters of saliva in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at exacerbation] Klin Lab Diagn. 2004 Oct;(10):16-8. Pubmed: 15584394
  • Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topcu AA: The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006 Jun;48(3):278-83. Pubmed: 16732795
  • Resnick LM, Barbagallo M, Bardicef M, Bardicef O, Sorokin Y, Evelhoch J, Dominguez LJ, Mason BA, Cotton DB: Cellular-free magnesium depletion in brain and muscle of normal and preeclamptic pregnancy: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. Hypertension. 2004 Sep;44(3):322-6. Epub 2004 Jul 19. Pubmed: 15262910
  • Simsek E, Karabay M, Kocabay K: Assessment of magnesium status in newly diagnosed diabetic children: measurement of erythrocyte magnesium level and magnesium tolerance testing. Turk J Pediatr. 2005 Apr-Jun;47(2):132-7. Pubmed: 16052852
  • Siqueira WL, de Oliveira E, Mustacchi Z, Nicolau J: Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years with Down syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004 Jul;98(1):76-9. Pubmed: 15243474
  • Wang FJ, Cao J, Ma LP, Jin ZX: [Study on cellular and serum concentration of calcium and magnesium in peripheral blood cells of cirrhosis] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;12(3):144-7. Pubmed: 15059297
  • Wang W, Kumar P, Minhas S, Ralph D: Proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation. Eur Urol. 2005 Sep;48(3):418-23. Pubmed: 15967566
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID25107
HMDB IDHMDB00547
Pubchem Compound ID888
Kegg IDC00305
ChemSpider ID865
WikipediaMagnesium
BioCyc IDMG+2
EcoCyc IDMG+2
Ligand ExpoMG

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of substances
Specific function:
Mediates magnesium influx to the cytosol
Gene Name:
mgtA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABB8
Molecular weight:
99466
Reactions
ATP + H(2)O + Mg(2+)(Out) = ADP + phosphate + Mg(2+)(In).

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in cobalt ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates influx of magnesium ions. Can also mediate cobalt and manganese uptake
Gene Name:
corA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABI4
Molecular weight:
36589
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368