Identification
Name:Bifunctional protein putA
Synonyms:
  • Proline dehydrogenase
  • Proline oxidase
  • Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase
  • P5C dehydrogenase
Gene Name:putA
Enzyme Class:
Biological Properties
General Function:Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon
Cellular Location:Not Available
SMPDB Pathways:
KEGG Pathways:
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism ec00250
  • Arginine and proline metabolism ec00330
KEGG Reactions:
Thumb+2 Thumb+ThumbThumb+Thumb+Thumb
Thumb+Thumb+ThumbThumb+Thumb+Thumb
Thumb+Thumb+2 ThumbThumb+Thumb+Thumb
Thumb+Thumb+2 ThumbThumb+Thumb+Thumb
Thumb+Acceptor+ThumbThumb+Reduced acceptor+Thumb+Thumb
Thumb+Thumb+2 ThumbL-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate+Thumb+Thumb
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + 2 Water ↔ L-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
ReactionCard
Thumb+Thumb+2 ThumbL-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate+Thumb+Thumb
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NADP + 2 Water ↔ L-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
ReactionCard
SMPDB Reactions:
L-Proline+Thumb+ThumbThumb+Thumb+1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid+Thumb
Thumb+Thumb+Thumb2 Thumb+Thumb+L-Glutamic acid+Thumb
EcoCyc Reactions:
Thumb+2 Thumb+ThumbThumb+Thumb+Thumb
Complex Reactions:
Thumb+ThumbThumb+Thumb+Thumb
Thumb+acceptorThumb+reduced acceptor
L-Proline + acceptor → (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced acceptor
ReactionCard
Thumb+NAD(P)(+)+2 ThumbThumb+NAD(P)H
Metabolites:
ECMDB IDNameView
ECMDB23106(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylateMetaboCard
ECMDB01248FADMetaboCard
ECMDB01197FADH2MetaboCard
ECMDB21225Hydrogen ionMetaboCard
ECMDB02434HydroquinoneMetaboCard
ECMDB01301L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acidMetaboCard
ECMDB00148L-GlutamateMetaboCard
ECMDB01305L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehydeMetaboCard
ECMDB00162L-ProlineMetaboCard
ECMDB00902NADMetaboCard
ECMDB01487NADHMetaboCard
ECMDB00217NADPMetaboCard
ECMDB04111NADPHMetaboCard
ECMDB01369Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acidMetaboCard
ECMDB23060QuinoneMetaboCard
ECMDB21574Ubiquinol-1MetaboCard
ECMDB21438Ubiquinone-1MetaboCard
ECMDB00494WaterMetaboCard
GO Classification:
Function
1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activity
catalytic activity
oxidoreductase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH group of donors
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
proline dehydrogenase activity
Process
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
cellular amino acid metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
glutamate biosynthetic process
glutamate metabolic process
glutamine family amino acid metabolic process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
proline biosynthetic process
proline catabolic process
proline metabolic process
Gene Properties
Blattner:b1014
Gene OrientationCounterclockwise
Centisome Percentage:23.15
Left Sequence End1074143
Right Sequence End1078105
Gene Sequence:
>3963 bp
ATGGGAACCACCACCATGGGGGTTAAGCTGGACGACGCGACGCGTGAGCGTATTAAGTCT
GCCGCGACACGTATCGATCGCACACCACACTGGTTAATTAAGCAGGCGATTTTTTCTTAT
CTCGAACAACTGGAAAACAGCGATACTCTGCCGGAGCTACCTGCGCTGCTTTCTGGCGCG
GCCAATGAGAGCGATGAAGCACCGACTCCGGCAGAGGAACCACACCAGCCATTCCTCGAC
TTTGCCGAGCAAATATTGCCCCAGTCGGTTTCCCGCGCCGCGATCACCGCGGCCTATCGC
CGCCCGGAAACCGAAGCGGTTTCTATGCTGCTGGAACAAGCCCGCCTGCCGCAGCCAGTT
GCTGAACAGGCGCACAAACTGGCGTATCAGCTGGCCGATAAACTGCGTAATCAAAAAAAT
GCCAGTGGTCGCGCAGGTATGGTCCAGGGGTTATTGCAGGAGTTTTCGCTGTCATCGCAG
GAAGGCGTGGCGCTGATGTGTCTGGCGGAAGCGTTGTTGCGTATTCCCGACAAAGCCACC
CGCGACGCGTTAATTCGCGACAAAATCAGCAACGGTAACTGGCAGTCACACATTGGTCGT
AGCCCGTCACTGTTTGTTAATGCCGCCACCTGGGGGCTGCTGTTTACTGGCAAACTGGTT
TCCACCCATAACGAAGCCAGCCTCTCCCGCTCGCTGAACCGCATTATCGGTAAAAGCGGT
GAACCGCTGATCCGCAAAGGTGTGGATATGGCGATGCGCCTGATGGGTGAGCAGTTCGTC
ACTGGCGAAACCATCGCGGAAGCGTTAGCCAATGCCCGCAAGCTGGAAGAGAAAGGTTTC
CGTTACTCTTACGATATGCTGGGCGAAGCCGCGCTGACCGCCGCAGATGCACAGGCGTAT
ATGGTTTCCTATCAGCAGGCGATTCACGCCATCGGTAAAGCGTCTAACGGTCGTGGCATC
TATGAAGGGCCGGGCATTTCAATCAAACTGTCGGCGCTGCATCCGCGTTATAGCCGCGCC
CAGTATGACCGGGTAATGGAAGAGCTTTACCCGCGTCTGAAATCACTCACCCTGCTGGCG
CGTCAGTACGATATTGGTATCAACATTGACGCCGAAGAGTCCGATCGCCTGGAGATCTCC
CTCGATCTGCTGGAAAAACTCTGTTTCGAGCCGGAACTGGCAGGCTGGAACGGCATCGGT
TTTGTTATTCAGGCTTATCAAAAACGCTGCCCGTTGGTGATCGATTACCTGATTGATCTC
GCCACCCGCAGCCGTCGCCGTCTGATGATTCGCCTGGTGAAAGGCGCGTACTGGGATAGT
GAAATTAAGCGTGCGCAGATGGACGGCCTTGAAGGTTATCCGGTTTATACCCGCAAGGTG
TATACCGACGTTTCTTATCTCGCCTGTGCGAAAAAGCTGCTGGCGGTGCCGAATCTAATC
TACCCGCAGTTCGCGACGCACAACGCCCATACGCTGGCGGCGATTTATCAACTGGCGGGG
CAGAACTACTACCCGGGTCAGTACGAGTTCCAGTGCCTGCATGGTATGGGCGAGCCACTG
TATGAGCAGGTCACCGGGAAAGTTGCCGACGGCAAACTTAACCGTCCGTGTCGTATTTAT
GCTCCGGTTGGCACACATGAAACGCTGTTGGCGTATCTGGTGCGTCGCCTGCTGGAAAAC
GGTGCTAACACCTCGTTTGTTAACCGTATTGCCGACACCTCTTTGCCACTGGATGAACTG
GTCGCCGATCCGGTCACTGCTGTAGAAAAACTGGCGCAACAGGAAGGGCAAACTGGATTA
CCGCATCCGAAAATTCCCCTGCCGCGCGATCTTTACGGTCACGGGCGCGACAACTCGGCA
GGGCTGGATCTCGCTAACGAACACCGCCTGGCCTCGCTCTCCTCTGCCCTGCTCAATAGT
GCACTGCAAAAATGGCAGGCCTTGCCAATGCTGGAACAACCGGTAGCGGCAGGTGAGATG
TCGCCCGTTATTAACCCTGCGGAACCGAAAGATATTGTGGGCTATGTGCGTGAAGCCACG
CCGCGTGAAGTAGAACAGGCGCTGGAAAGTGCGGTTAATAACGCGCCAATCTGGTTTGCC
ACGCCTCCGGCTGAACGCGCAGCGATTTTGCACCGCGCTGCCGTGCTGATGGAAAGCCAG
ATGCAGCAACTGATTGGTATTCTGGTGCGTGAGGCCGGAAAAACCTTCAGTAACGCCATT
GCCGAAGTGCGCGAAGCGGTCGATTTTCTCCACTACTACGCCGGACAGGTGCGGGATGAT
TTCGCTAACGAAACCCACCGTCCATTAGGGCCTGTGGTGTGTATCAGTCCGTGGAACTTC
CCGCTGGCTATTTTCACCGGGCAGATCGCCGCCGCACTGGCGGCAGGTAACAGCGTGCTG
GCAAAACCGGCAGAACAAACGCCGCTGATTGCCGCGCAAGGGATCGCCATTTTGCTGGAA
GCGGGTGTACCGCCAGGCGTGGTGCAATTGCTGCCAGGTCGGGGTGAAACCGTGGGCGCG
CAACTGACGGGTGATGATCGCGTGCGCGGGGTGATGTTTACCGGTTCAACCGAAGTCGCT
ACGTTACTGCAGCGCAATATCGCCAGCCGCCTGGACGCTCAGGGTCGCCCTATTCCGCTC
ATCGCTGAAACCGGCGGCATGAACGCGATGATTGTCGATTCTTCAGCACTGACCGAACAG
GTCGTCGTGGATGTACTGGCCTCGGCGTTCGACAGTGCGGGTCAGCGTTGTTCGGCGCTG
CGCGTGCTGTGCCTGCAAGATGAGATTGCCGACCACACGTTGAAAATGCTGCGCGGCGCA
ATGGCCGAATGCCGGATGGGTAATCCGGGTCGCCTGACCACCGATATCGGTCCAGTGATT
GATAGCGAAGCGAAAGCCAATATTGAGCGCCATATTCAGACCATGCGTAGCAAAGGCCGT
CCGGTGTTCCAGGCGGTGCGGGAAAACAGCGAAGATGCCCGTGAATGGCAAAGCGGCACC
TTTGTCGCCCCGACGCTGATCGAACTGGATGACTTTGCCGAATTGCAAAAAGAGGTCTTT
GGTCCGGTGCTGCATGTGGTGCGTTACAACCGTAACCAGCTACCAGAGCTGATCGAGCAG
ATTAACGCTTCCGGTTATGGTCTGACGCTTGGCGTCCATACGCGCATTGATGAAACCATC
GCCCAGGTCACTGGCTCGGCCCATGTTGGTAACCTGTATGTTAACCGTAATATGGTGGGC
GCAGTGGTTGGTGTGCAGCCGTTCGGCGGCGAAGGGTTGTCCGGTACCGGGCCGAAAGCA
GGCGGTCCGCTCTATCTCTACCGTCTGCTGGCGAATCGCCCGGAAAGTGCGCTGGCAGTG
ACGCTCGCGCGTCAGGATGCAAAGTATCCGGTCGATGCGCAGTTGAAAGCCGCATTGACT
CAGCCGCTAAATGCACTGCGGGAATGGGCAGCAAATCGTCCAGAATTGCAGGCGTTATGT
ACGCAATATGGCGAGCTGGCGCAGGCAGGAACACAACGATTGCTGCCGGGGCCGACGGGT
GAACGCAACACCTGGACGCTGCTGCCGCGTGAGCGCGTGTTGTGTATTGCCGATGATGAG
CAGGATGCGCTGACTCAGCTCGCCGCCGTGCTGGCGGTGGGCAGCCAGGTACTGTGGCCG
GATGACGCGCTGCATCGTCAGTTAGTGAAGGCATTGCCATCGGCAGTCAGCGAACGTATT
CAACTGGCGAAAGCGGAAAATATAACCGCTCAACCGTTTGATGCGGTGATCTTCCACGGT
GATTCGGATCAGCTTCGCGCATTGTGTGAAGCAGTTGCCGCGCGGGATGGCACAATTGTT
TCGGTGCAGGGTTTTGCCCGTGGCGAAAGCAATATCCTTCTGGAACGGCTGTATATCGAG
CGTTCGCTGAGTGTGAATACCGCTGCCGCTGGCGGTAACGCCAGCTTAATGACTATAGGT
TAA
Protein Properties
Pfam Domain Function:
Protein Residues:1320
Protein Molecular Weight:143814
Protein Theoretical pI:6
PDB File:1K87
Signaling Regions:
  • None
Transmembrane Regions:
  • None
Protein Sequence:
>Bifunctional protein putA
MGTTTMGVKLDDATRERIKSAATRIDRTPHWLIKQAIFSYLEQLENSDTLPELPALLSGA
ANESDEAPTPAEEPHQPFLDFAEQILPQSVSRAAITAAYRRPETEAVSMLLEQARLPQPV
AEQAHKLAYQLADKLRNQKNASGRAGMVQGLLQEFSLSSQEGVALMCLAEALLRIPDKAT
RDALIRDKISNGNWQSHIGRSPSLFVNAATWGLLFTGKLVSTHNEASLSRSLNRIIGKSG
EPLIRKGVDMAMRLMGEQFVTGETIAEALANARKLEEKGFRYSYDMLGEAALTAADAQAY
MVSYQQAIHAIGKASNGRGIYEGPGISIKLSALHPRYSRAQYDRVMEELYPRLKSLTLLA
RQYDIGINIDAEESDRLEISLDLLEKLCFEPELAGWNGIGFVIQAYQKRCPLVIDYLIDL
ATRSRRRLMIRLVKGAYWDSEIKRAQMDGLEGYPVYTRKVYTDVSYLACAKKLLAVPNLI
YPQFATHNAHTLAAIYQLAGQNYYPGQYEFQCLHGMGEPLYEQVTGKVADGKLNRPCRIY
APVGTHETLLAYLVRRLLENGANTSFVNRIADTSLPLDELVADPVTAVEKLAQQEGQTGL
PHPKIPLPRDLYGHGRDNSAGLDLANEHRLASLSSALLNSALQKWQALPMLEQPVAAGEM
SPVINPAEPKDIVGYVREATPREVEQALESAVNNAPIWFATPPAERAAILHRAAVLMESQ
MQQLIGILVREAGKTFSNAIAEVREAVDFLHYYAGQVRDDFANETHRPLGPVVCISPWNF
PLAIFTGQIAAALAAGNSVLAKPAEQTPLIAAQGIAILLEAGVPPGVVQLLPGRGETVGA
QLTGDDRVRGVMFTGSTEVATLLQRNIASRLDAQGRPIPLIAETGGMNAMIVDSSALTEQ
VVVDVLASAFDSAGQRCSALRVLCLQDEIADHTLKMLRGAMAECRMGNPGRLTTDIGPVI
DSEAKANIERHIQTMRSKGRPVFQAVRENSEDAREWQSGTFVAPTLIELDDFAELQKEVF
GPVLHVVRYNRNQLPELIEQINASGYGLTLGVHTRIDETIAQVTGSAHVGNLYVNRNMVG
AVVGVQPFGGEGLSGTGPKAGGPLYLYRLLANRPESALAVTLARQDAKYPVDAQLKAALT
QPLNALREWAANRPELQALCTQYGELAQAGTQRLLPGPTGERNTWTLLPRERVLCIADDE
QDALTQLAAVLAVGSQVLWPDDALHRQLVKALPSAVSERIQLAKAENITAQPFDAVIFHG
DSDQLRALCEAVAARDGTIVSVQGFARGESNILLERLYIERSLSVNTAAAGGNASLMTIG
References
External Links:
ResourceLink
Uniprot ID:P09546
Uniprot Name:PUTA_ECOLI
GenBank Gene ID:AP009048
Genebank Protein ID:1651503
PDB ID:1K87
Ecogene ID:EG10801
Ecocyc:EG10801
ColiBase:b1014
Kegg Gene:b1014
EchoBASE ID:EB0794
CCDB:PUTA_ECOLI
BacMap:16128980
General Reference:
  • Blattner, F. R., Plunkett, G. 3rd, Bloch, C. A., Perna, N. T., Burland, V., Riley, M., Collado-Vides, J., Glasner, J. D., Rode, C. K., Mayhew, G. F., Gregor, J., Davis, N. W., Kirkpatrick, H. A., Goeden, M. A., Rose, D. J., Mau, B., Shao, Y. (1997). "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12." Science 277:1453-1462. Pubmed: 9278503
  • Hayashi, K., Morooka, N., Yamamoto, Y., Fujita, K., Isono, K., Choi, S., Ohtsubo, E., Baba, T., Wanner, B. L., Mori, H., Horiuchi, T. (2006). "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110." Mol Syst Biol 2:2006.0007. Pubmed: 16738553
  • Lee, Y. H., Nadaraia, S., Gu, D., Becker, D. F., Tanner, J. J. (2003). "Structure of the proline dehydrogenase domain of the multifunctional PutA flavoprotein." Nat Struct Biol 10:109-114. Pubmed: 12514740
  • Ling, M., Allen, S. W., Wood, J. M. (1994). "Sequence analysis identifies the proline dehydrogenase and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase domains of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein." J Mol Biol 243:950-956. Pubmed: 7966312
  • Nakao, T., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. (1987). "Nucleotide sequence of putC, the regulatory region for the put regulon of Escherichia coli K12." Mol Gen Genet 210:364-368. Pubmed: 3325781
  • Oshima, T., Aiba, H., Baba, T., Fujita, K., Hayashi, K., Honjo, A., Ikemoto, K., Inada, T., Itoh, T., Kajihara, M., Kanai, K., Kashimoto, K., Kimura, S., Kitagawa, M., Makino, K., Masuda, S., Miki, T., Mizobuchi, K., Mori, H., Motomura, K., Nakamura, Y., Nashimoto, H., Nishio, Y., Saito, N., Horiuchi, T., et, a. l. .. (1996). "A 718-kb DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome corresponding to the 12.7-28.0 min region on the linkage map." DNA Res 3:137-155. Pubmed: 8905232