Record Information
Creation Date2012-05-31 14:04:48 -0600
Update Date2015-06-03 15:54:43 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB04092
Name:alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid
DescriptionAlpha-ketoisovaleric acid is a branched chain organic acid which is a precursor to leucine and valine synthesis. It is also a degradation product from valine. The enzyme dihydroxy-acid dehydratase catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine, through the dehydration of 2, 3-dihydroxy-isovaleic acid into alpha-ketoisovaleric acid.
  • α-keto-isovalerate
  • α-keto-isovaleric acid
  • α-keto-valine
  • α-ketoisopentanoate
  • α-ketoisopentanoic acid
  • α-ketovaline
  • α-oxoisovalerate
  • α-oxoisovaleric acid
  • 2-Keto-3-Methylbutyrate
  • 2-Keto-3-Methylbutyric acid
  • 2-Keto-isovalerate
  • 2-Keto-isovaleric acid
  • 2-Ketoisovalerate
  • 2-Ketoisovaleric acid
  • 2-Ketoisvalerate
  • 2-ketoisvaleric acid
  • 2-Ketovaline
  • 2-KIV
  • 2-Oxo-3-methyl-butyrate
  • 2-oxo-3-Methyl-butyric acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-methylbutanoate
  • 2-Oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-methylbutyrate
  • 2-Oxo-3-methylbutyric acid
  • 2-Oxoisopentanoate
  • 2-Oxoisopentanoic acid
  • 2-Oxoisovalerate
  • 2-Oxoisovaleric acid
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxo-Butanoate
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxo-Butanoic acid
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxo-Butyrate
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxo-Butyric acid
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxobutanoate
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxobutinoate
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxobutinoic acid
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxobutyrate
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxobutyric acid
  • A-Keto-b-Methylbutyrate
  • A-Keto-b-Methylbutyric acid
  • A-Keto-Isovalerate
  • A-Keto-Isovaleric acid
  • a-keto-Valine
  • a-Ketoisopentanoate
  • a-Ketoisopentanoic acid
  • a-Ketoisovalerate
  • a-Ketoisovaleric acid
  • a-Ketovaline
  • A-Oxo-b-methylbutyrate
  • A-Oxo-b-methylbutyric acid
  • A-Oxoisovalerate
  • A-Oxoisovaleric acid
  • Alpha-Keto-beta-Methylbutyrate
  • Alpha-Keto-beta-Methylbutyric acid
  • Alpha-Keto-Isovalerate
  • Alpha-Keto-Isovaleric acid
  • Alpha-Keto-valine
  • Alpha-Ketoisopentanoate
  • Alpha-Ketoisopentanoic acid
  • Alpha-Ketoisovalerate
  • Alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid
  • Alpha-Ketovaline
  • Alpha-Oxo-beta-methylbutyrate
  • Alpha-Oxo-beta-methylbutyric acid
  • Alpha-Oxoisovalerate
  • Alpha-Oxoisovaleric acid
  • Dimethylpyruvate
  • Dimethylpyruvic acid
  • Isopropylglyoxylate
  • Isopropylglyoxylic acid
  • Ketovaline
  • α-keto-Isovalerate
  • α-keto-Isovaleric acid
  • α-keto-Valine
  • α-keto-β-Methylbutyrate
  • α-keto-β-Methylbutyric acid
  • α-Ketoisopentanoate
  • α-Ketoisopentanoic acid
  • α-Ketoisovalerate
  • α-Ketoisovaleric acid
  • α-Ketovaline
  • α-oxo-β-Methylbutyrate
  • α-oxo-β-Methylbutyric acid
  • α-Oxoisovalerate
  • α-Oxoisovaleric acid
Chemical Formula:C5H8O3
Weight:Average: 116.1152
Monoisotopic: 116.047344122
CAS number:759-05-7
IUPAC Name:3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:α-ketoisovalerate
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Sub ClassShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Melting point:31.5 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:0.1 g/mL MeOH hot clearPhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility30.2 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity27.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.04 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
SMPDB Pathways:
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesisPW000828 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
  • Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis ec00770
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis ec00290
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation ec00280
EcoCyc Pathways:
Not Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9500000000-ff936b879a69b5d118f8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-8920000000-e37b37d64d43dcf763f0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-000i-9400000000-e3995acc4818a98d0f48View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-0f79-9720000000-5d89487273e44ea61a68View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9700000000-209c737dcac7df2b198cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-5920000000-759a2f01b4f52767ade2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9500000000-ff936b879a69b5d118f8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-8920000000-e37b37d64d43dcf763f0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-9400000000-e3995acc4818a98d0f48View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-9720000000-5d89487273e44ea61a68View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-7900000000-7e325567183fb56996d5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ufr-0930000000-be90b06add7135b4a539View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-52f9d8fc8386e4c512feView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9600000000-52aefdc997dac92c8459View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-10ab58a33e9ca7dbace0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-ad51ff01c94b6046ad64View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-9993174a7b1801b90ddbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00xr-9500000000-293818b81e0879b6feb2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-75058f27a2178b9cf121View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-4c20af39e8ee009d5278View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-9993174a7b1801b90ddbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00xr-9500000000-1a58c6a6b4f5477dabddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-75058f27a2178b9cf121View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-cc4465a47e663be66df5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-19511890852fce513a02View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00r2-9400000000-21f8c3fae79161c82099View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-5f25e41413738bb6b5d7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-801af00dea93fcfd637dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-01b9-8900000000-5185c7dfc72c25069904View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00xs-9200000000-7e2a275a65197f96f5d7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0600-9000000000-0013e0ff06f9896a1337View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
  • Chuang DT, Niu WL, Cox RP: Activities of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase and its components in skin fibroblasts from normal and classical-maple-syrup-urine-disease subjects. Biochem J. 1981 Oct 15;200(1):59-67. Pubmed: 6895847
  • Gallina DL, Dominguez JM, Hoschoian JC, Barrio JR: Maintenance of nitrogen balance in a young woman by substitution of -ketoisovaleric acid for valine. J Nutr. 1971 Sep;101(9):1165-7. Pubmed: 5096137
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Lee SH, Kim SO, Chung BC: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of urinary oxoacids using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime-trimethylsilyl ester derivatization and cation-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):1-7. Pubmed: 9869358
  • Livesey G, Lund P: Binding of branched-chain 2-oxo acids to bovine serum albumin. Biochem J. 1982 Apr 15;204(1):265-72. Pubmed: 7115325
  • Schaefer K, von Herrath D, Erley CM, Asmus G: Calcium ketovaline as new therapy for uremic hyperphosphatemia. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1990;16(6):362-4. Pubmed: 2089249
  • Schauder P, Schroder K, Langenbeck U: Serum branched-chain amino and keto acid response to a protein-rich meal in man. Ann Nutr Metab. 1984;28(6):350-6. Pubmed: 6393856
  • Shigematsu Y, Kikuchi K, Momoi T, Sudo M, Kikawa Y, Nosaka K, Kuriyama M, Haruki S, Sanada K, Hamano N, et al.: Organic acids and branched-chain amino acids in body fluids before and after multiple exchange transfusions in maple syrup urine disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1983;6(4):183-9. Pubmed: 6422161
  • Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. Pubmed: 2026685
  • Tsuchiya H, Hashizume I, Tokunaga T, Tatsumi M, Takagi N, Hayashi T: High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28(11):989-92. Pubmed: 6581765
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Yurtsever D. (2007). Fatty acid methyl ester profiling of Enterococcus and Esherichia coli for microbial source tracking. Thesis. Villanova University: U.S.A
Synthesis Reference:Pirrung, Michael C.; Ha, Hyun Joon; Holmes, Christopher P. Purification and inhibition of spinach a,b-dihydroxyacid dehydratase . Journal of Organic Chemistry (1989), 54(7), 1543-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID49
Kegg IDC00141
ChemSpider ID48
Wikipedia IDAlpha-Ketoisovaleric acid
Ligand ExpoKIV


General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate = 3-methyl-2- oxobutanoate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
L-valine + pyruvate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-alanine
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-valine + pyruvate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-alanine.
General function:
Involved in 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2-oxoisovalerate) to form 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (2-isopropylmalate)
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Acetyl-CoA + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O = (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible reaction in which hydroxymethyl group from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate is tranferred onto alpha-ketoisovalerate to form ketopantoate
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O = tetrahydrofolate + 2-dehydropantoate.
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acts on leucine, isoleucine and valine
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-glutamate.