Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:47:40 -0600
Update Date2015-06-03 15:53:51 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB01206
Identification
Name:Acetyl-CoA
Description:Acetyl-CoA is the thioester formed between coenzyme A (a thiol) and acetic acid (an acyl group carrier). Acetyl-CoA is produced during the second step of aerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate decarboxylation. Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
  • Acetyl-S-CoA
  • Acetyl-CoA
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl-S-CoA
  • Acetyl-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetylcoenzyme A
  • Acetylcoenzyme-A
  • S-Acetate CoA
  • S-Acetate Coenzyme A
  • S-Acetic acid CoA
  • S-Acetic acid Coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl coenzyme A
Chemical Formula:C23H38N7O17P3S
Weight:Average: 809.571
Monoisotopic: 809.125773051
InChI Key:ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C23H38N7O17P3S/c1-12(31)51-7-6-25-14(32)4-5-26-21(35)18(34)23(2,3)9-44-50(41,42)47-49(39,40)43-8-13-17(46-48(36,37)38)16(33)22(45-13)30-11-29-15-19(24)27-10-28-20(15)30/h10-11,13,16-18,22,33-34H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,25,32)(H,26,35)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H2,24,27,28)(H2,36,37,38)/t13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1
CAS number:72-89-9
IUPAC Name:{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2-({[({[(3R)-3-[(2-{[2-(acetylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:acetyl-CoA
SMILES:CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)[C@H](O)C(C)(C)COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl coas. These are organic compounds containing a coenzyme A substructure linked to an acyl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct ParentAcyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Ribonucleoside 3'-phosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • N-acyl-amine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carbothioic s-ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:-4
Melting point:Not Available
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.3 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.58ALOGPS
logP-7ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area363.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count20ChemAxon
Refractivity172.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability71.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
Coenzyme A + 2 flavodoxin semi oxidized + Pyruvic acid <> Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide +2 Flavodoxin reduced + Hydrogen ion
Coenzyme A + Pyruvic acid <> Acetyl-CoA + Formic acid
Coenzyme A + NAD + Pyruvic acid > Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH
Acetyl-CoA + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen carbonate <> ADP + Hydrogen ion + Malonyl-CoA + Phosphate
Acetaldehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD <> Acetyl-CoA + Hydrogen ion + NADH
acyl carrier protein + Acetyl-CoA <> Acetyl-ACP + Coenzyme A
3-Oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA + Coenzyme A <> 5-Carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
Acetoacetic acid + Acetyl-CoA > Acetoacetyl-CoA + Acetic acid
Acetyl-CoA + Butyric acid > Acetic acid + Butyryl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Hexanoate (N-C6:0) > Acetic acid + Hexanoyl-CoA
2 Acetyl-CoA <> Acetoacetyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Phosphate <> Acetylphosphate + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Octanoyl-CoA <> 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA <> 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Tetradecanoyl-CoA <> 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Hexanoyl-CoA <> 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Lauroyl-CoA <> 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Decanoyl-CoA (N-C10:0CoA) <> 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
3-Oxooctadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A <> Acetyl-CoA + Palmityl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Glyoxylic acid + Water <> Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + L-Malic acid
alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Water + a-Ketoisovaleric acid <> 2-Isopropylmalic acid + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + D-Glucose <> 6-Acetyl-D-glucose + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + D-Maltose <> Acetyl-maltose + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid <> Citric acid + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + Hydrogen ion + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] > Acetoacetyl-ACP + Carbon dioxide + Coenzyme A
Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoA <> Acetyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + 2-Aminobenzoic acid > N-Acetylanthranilate + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Spermidine > N1-Acetylspermidine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + Spermidine > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N8-Acetylspermidine
Acetyl-CoA + Rhamanosyl-N-acetylglucosamyl-undecaprenyl diphosphate > O-Acetyl-rhamanosyl-N-acetylglucosamyl-undecaprenyl diphosphate + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate <> N-Acetyl-L-alanine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid
Acetyl-CoA + L-Serine <> O-Acetylserine + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine <> L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + N-Acetyl-glucosamine 1-phosphate > N-Acetyl-glucosamine 1-phosphate + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + dTDP-D-Fucosamine > Coenzyme A + dTDP-4-Acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose + Hydrogen ion
Acetic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Coenzyme A <> Acetyl-CoA + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate
Acetyl-CoA + Formic acid <> Coenzyme A + Pyruvic acid
Acetaldehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD <> Acetyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + Phosphate <> Coenzyme A + Acetylphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A <> Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoA
2 Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-L-alanine
Citric acid + Coenzyme A <> Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine <> Coenzyme A + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid
L-Malic acid + Coenzyme A <> Acetyl-CoA + Water + Glyoxylic acid
L-Serine + Acetyl-CoA <> O-Acetylserine + Coenzyme A
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Hydrogen carbonate <> ADP + Phosphate + Malonyl-CoA
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoA
Propionyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 2-Methylacetoacetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescine
Acetyl-CoA + Butanoyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA
Butanoyl-CoA + Acetic acid <> Butyric acid + Acetyl-CoA
2 Reduced ferredoxin + Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + 2 Hydrogen ion + Oxidized ferredoxin <>2 Oxidized ferredoxin + Pyruvic acid + Coenzyme A + Reduced ferredoxin
2-Isopropylmalic acid + Coenzyme A <> Acetyl-CoA + alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + Water
Acetoacetyl-CoA + Acetic acid <> Acetoacetic acid + Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Acyl-carrier protein <> Coenzyme A + Acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
Acetyl-CoA + Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine <> Coenzyme A + [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoA
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoA
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Carboxybiotin-carboxyl-carrier protein <> Malonyl-CoA + Holo-[carboxylase]
Decanoyl-CoA (N-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoA
Hexanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + alpha-D-Glucosamine 1-phosphate <> Coenzyme A + Glucosamine-1P
Benzoyl acetyl-CoA + Coenzyme A <> Benzoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate + Acetyl-CoA <> 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoyl-CoA + Acetic acid
OPC6-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC8-CoA
OPC4-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC6-CoA
(+)-7-Isojasmonic acid CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxo-OPC4-CoA
7-Methyl-3-oxo-6-octenoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A <> 5-Methylhex-4-enoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
5-Methyl-3-oxo-4-hexenoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A <> 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
Demethylphosphinothricin + Acetyl-CoA <> N-Acetyldemethylphosphinothricin + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + + Glufosinate <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetylphosphinothricin + N-Acetylphosphinothricin
3-Oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA + Coenzyme A <> 5-Carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
L-Methionine + Acetyl-CoA N-&alpha;-acetyl-L-methionine + Coenzyme A
alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + Acetyl-CoA + Water > Hydrogen ion + 3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-isocaproate + Coenzyme A
an <i>N</i>-hydroxy-arylamine + Acetyl-CoA <> an <i>N</i>-acetoxyarylamine + Coenzyme A
Glucosamine-1P + Acetyl-CoA > Hydrogen ion + <i>N</i>-acetyl-&alpha;-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + Coenzyme A
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + Acetic acid <> a fatty acid + Acetyl-CoA
NAD + Coenzyme A + Acetaldehyde <> Hydrogen ion + NADH + Acetyl-CoA
Coenzyme A + Acetic acid + Adenosine triphosphate > Acetyl-CoA + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate
Acetoacetic acid + Acetyl-CoA <> Acetoacetyl-CoA + Acetic acid
Acetyl-CoA <> Acetoacetyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Hydrogen carbonate > Hydrogen ion + Malonyl-CoA + Phosphate + ADP
Glycine + Acetyl-CoA <> Hydrogen ion + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid + Coenzyme A
Oxalacetic acid + Acetyl-CoA + Water <> Hydrogen ion + Citric acid + Coenzyme A
an aliphatic &alpha;,&omega;-diamine + Acetyl-CoA <> an aliphatic <i>N</i>-acetyl-diamine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + Dihydrolipoamide Coenzyme A + S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide
a &beta;-D-galactoside + Acetyl-CoA <> a 6-acetyl-&beta;-D-galactoside + Coenzyme A
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + Acetyl-CoA < a 3-oxoacyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Glyoxylic acid > Hydrogen ion + L-Malic acid + Coenzyme A
D-Maltose + Acetyl-CoA <> Acetyl-maltose + Coenzyme A
L-Glutamate + Acetyl-CoA <> Hydrogen ion + <i>N</i>-acetyl-L-glutamate + Coenzyme A
Phosphate + Acetyl-CoA <> Acetylphosphate + Coenzyme A
Pyruvic acid + Coenzyme A + NAD > Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH
Formic acid + Acetyl-CoA <> Pyruvic acid + Coenzyme A
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA < 3-Oxoadipyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
3-Oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > 2,3-dehydroadipyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA
L-Serine + Acetyl-CoA <> O-Acetylserine + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Spermidine <> N1-Acetylspermidine + Hydrogen ion + Coenzyme A
dTDP-D-Fucosamine + Acetyl-CoA > Hydrogen ion + dTDP-4-Acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose + Coenzyme A
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Malonyl-CoA
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Malonyl-CoA
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Malonyl-CoA
Acetaldehyde + CoA + NAD > Acetyl-CoA + NADH
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + CoA > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoA
Acetaldehyde + CoA + NAD > Acetyl-CoA + NADH
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate > CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine > CoA + an N-acetyldiamine
Acyl-CoA + Acetic acid > a fatty acid anion + Acetyl-CoA
2 Acetyl-CoA > CoA + Acetoacetyl-CoA
Acyl-CoA + Acetic acid > a fatty acid anion + Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Citric acid > Acetic acid + (3S)-Citryl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid > Citric acid + CoA
(3S)-Citryl-CoA > Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic acid
Acetyl-CoA + L-Serine > CoA + O-Acetylserine
Acetyl-CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] > acetoacetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + CoA + Carbon dioxide
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA > CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA > CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + alpha-D-Glucosamine 1-phosphate > CoA + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine > CoA + L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid
Acetyl-CoA + a-Ketoisovaleric acid + Water > 2-Isopropylmalic acid + CoA
Acetyl-CoA + D-Maltose > CoA + Acetyl-maltose
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Glyoxylic acid > L-Malic acid + CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Glyoxylic acid > L-Malic acid + CoA
Acetyl-CoA + an N-hydroxyarylamine > CoA + an N-acetoxyarylamine
Pyruvic acid + CoA + oxidized flavodoxin > Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + reduced flavodoxin
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine > CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine
Succinyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA > CoA + 3-Oxoadipyl-CoA
2,3-dehydroadipyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA > CoA + 3-Oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Formic acid > CoA + Pyruvic acid
Acetyl-CoA + Formic acid > CoA + Pyruvic acid
Acetyl-CoA + Formic acid > CoA + Pyruvic acid
Acetyl-CoA + Inorganic phosphate > CoA + Acetylphosphate
Acetyl-CoA + ribosomal-protein L-alanine > CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine
Acetyl-CoA + ribosomal-protein L-alanine > CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine
Acetyl-CoA + ribosomal-protein L-serine > CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-serine
Acetyl-CoA + Formic acid > CoA + Pyruvic acid
Acetyl-CoA + a beta-D-galactoside > CoA + a 6-acetyl-beta-D-galactoside
(Elongator tRNA(Met))-cytidine(34) + Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA > (elongator tRNA(Met))-N(4)-acetylcytidine(34) + ADP + Inorganic phosphate + CoA
Acyl-CoA + Acetic acid > a fatty acid anion + Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + L-Methionine > CoA + N-Acetyl-L-methionine
2 Acetyl-CoA > CoA + Acetoacetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Ribosomal-protein L-alanine <> Coenzyme A + Ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine
Acetyl-CoA + N-Hydroxyarylamine <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetoxyarylamine
Acetyl-CoA + Alkane-alpha,omega-diamine <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetyldiamine
Acyl-CoA + Acetic acid <> Fatty acid anion + Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + dTDP-D-Fucosamine <> Coenzyme A + dTDP-4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose
Acetyl-CoA + beta-D-Galactoside <> Coenzyme A + 6-Acetyl-beta-D-galactoside
Acetyl-CoA + D-Maltose <> Coenzyme A + Acetyl-maltose
Acetyl-CoA + Citric acid <> Acetic acid + (3S)-Citryl-CoA
(3S)-Citryl-CoA <> Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic acid
Acetyl-CoA + Oxalic acid <> Acetic acid + Oxalyl-CoA
Acyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> Coenzyme A + 3-Oxoacyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] <> Acetoacetyl-[acp] + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxide
Acetyl-CoA + 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate > Acetic acid + 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoyl-CoA + 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoyl-CoA
a 3-oxoacyl-CoA  + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA 
Acetoacetyl-CoA + Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoA > Acetyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA
3-Oxodecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Lauroyl-CoA
3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Octanoyl-CoA + Octanoyl-CoA
3-Oxododecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Tetradecanoyl-CoA
3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Palmityl-CoA
3-Oxooctanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Decanoyl-CoA (N-C10:0CoA)
3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Stearoyl-CoA + Stearoyl-CoA
3-Oxooctadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A + 3-Oxooctadecanoyl-CoA > Acetyl-CoA + Stearoyl-CoA + Stearoyl-CoA
Coenzyme A + 7-Methyl-3-oxo-6-octenoyl-CoA > Acetyl-CoA + 5-Methylhex-4-enoyl-CoA
Coenzyme A + 5-Methyl-3-oxo-4-hexenoyl-CoA > Acetyl-CoA + 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA
2 Acetyl-CoA <> Acetoacetyl-CoA + Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoA
Pyruvic acid + Coenzyme A + NAD > Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid > Citric acid + Coenzyme A
Oxalacetic acid + Water + Acetyl-CoA > Citric acid + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamic acid + Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid + N-Acetylglutamic acid
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA <> 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Lauroyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA > 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + Acetyl-CoA + Decanoyl-CoA (N-C10:0CoA) > 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Octanoyl-CoA + Acetyl-CoA + Octanoyl-CoA <> 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Hexanyl-CoA <> 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA + Butyryl-CoA > 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA + Coenzyme A
Acetyl-CoA + Hydrogen carbonate + Adenosine triphosphate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + Malonyl-CoA + ADP + Malonyl-CoA
a malonyl-[acp] + Hydrogen ion + Acetyl-CoA > Carbon dioxide + Coenzyme A + acetoacetyl-[acp]
Acetyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] > Coenzyme A + an acetyl-[acp]
L-Serine + Acetyl-CoA + L-Serine > Coenzyme A + O-Acetylserine
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Water + Acetyl-CoA + 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + 2-Isopropylmalic acid
Glyoxylic acid + Water + Acetyl-CoA > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + L-Malic acid + L-Malic acid
3-hydroxy-2,4-pentanedione 5-phosphate + Coenzyme A + 3-hydroxy-2,4-pentanedione 5-phosphate > Acetyl-CoA + Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Glucosamine-1P + Acetyl-CoA + Glucosamine-1P > N-Acetyl-glucosamine 1-phosphate + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetyl-glucosamine 1-phosphate
a malonyl-[acp] + Hydrogen ion + Acetyl-CoA > Carbon dioxide + Coenzyme A + acetoacetyl-[acp]
Acetyl-CoA + dTDP-thomosamine > TDP-Fuc4NAc + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> N-Acetyl-L-alanine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid + N-Acetyl-L-alanine + N-Acetylglutamic acid
Acetaldehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD > Hydrogen ion + NADH + Acetyl-CoA
L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Glycine
Acetyl-CoA + Dihydrolipoamide + Dihydrolipoamide <> Coenzyme A + S-Acetyldihydrolipoamide
Spermidine + Acetyl-CoA > N8-Acetylspermidine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion
3-Oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + 2,3-didehydroadipyl-CoA
3-Oxoadipyl-CoA + Coenzyme A > Acetyl-CoA + Succinyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + dTDP-D-Fucosamine > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + dTDP-4-Acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose
a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-acetyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + Coenzyme A > a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + Acetyl-CoA
a biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate + ADP + Malonyl-CoA < Water + Acetyl-CoA + Adenosine triphosphate + carboxylated-biotinylated [BCCP dimer]
Acetoacetic acid + Acetyl-CoA > Acetic acid + Acetoacetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Phosphate > Coenzyme A + Acetylphosphate
Acetic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Coenzyme A > Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoA
Acetoacetyl-CoA > Coenzyme A + Acetyl-CoA
More...

SMPDB Pathways:
1,6-anhydro-<i>N</i>-acetylmuramic acid recyclingPW002064 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
2-Oxopent-4-enoate metabolismPW001890 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
2-Oxopent-4-enoate metabolism 2PW002035 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Acetate metabolismPW002090 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism IPW000886 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Aminobenzoate DegradationPW000757 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Fatty acid biosynthesisPW000900 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Fatty acid metabolismPW000796 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Glutathione metabolismPW000833 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
L-glutamate metabolism IIPW001886 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Leucine BiosynthesisPW000811 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesisPW000831 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Lysine biosynthesisPW000771 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
O-antigen building blocks biosynthesisPW002089 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Phenylalanine metabolismPW000921 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Phenylethylamine metabolismPW002027 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Propanoate metabolismPW000940 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Quorum SensingPW000836 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesisPW000837 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolite: Leucine biosynthesisPW000980 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Glyoxylate cyclePW000967 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Valine and I-leucine biosynthesis from pyruvatePW000978 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: cysteine biosynthesis from serinePW000977 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesisPW000959 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis 2PW002045 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis 3PW002046 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Sulfur metabolismPW000922 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cyclePW000779 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-0)PW002023 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-10)PW001010 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-2)PW001002 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-3)PW001003 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-4)PW001004 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-5)PW001005 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-6)PW001006 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-7)PW001007 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-8)PW001008 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-9)PW001009 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Tryptophan metabolismPW000815 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
arginine metabolismPW000790 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
beta-Alanine metabolismPW000896 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
biotin-carboxyl carrier protein assemblyPW002067 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
cysteine biosynthesisPW000800 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid elongation -- saturatedPW000798 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidationPW000758 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (Butanoate)PW001017 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (Decanoate)PW001018 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (hexanoate)PW001019 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (laurate)PW001020 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (myristate)PW001021 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (octanoate)PW001022 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (palmitate)PW001023 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fatty acid oxidation (steareate)PW001024 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
fructose metabolismPW000913 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolismPW000914 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism IIPW000915 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism III (sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine)PW000916 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism IV (glycerophosphoglycerol)PW000917 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycerol metabolism V (glycerophosphoserine)PW000918 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycolate and glyoxylate degradationPW000827 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycolate and glyoxylate degradation IIPW002021 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glycolysis and pyruvate dehydrogenasePW000785 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis IIPW001905 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis IIIPW002059 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
ornithine metabolismPW000791 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
palmitate biosynthesisPW000797 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
palmitate biosynthesis 2PW002044 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis IPW000906 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis I 2PW002062 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoAPW002083 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
serine biosynthesis and metabolismPW000809 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
superpathway of D-glucarate and D-galactarate degradationPW000795 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
threonine biosynthesisPW000817 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tryptophan metabolism IIPW001916 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
606± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glucoseMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
734± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glycerolMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
628± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L acetateMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
63± 0 uMW31104.0 g/L Na2SO4; 5.36 g/L (NH4)2SO4; 1.0 g/L NH4Cl; 7.3 g/L K2HPO4; 1.8 g/L NaH2PO4 H2O; 12.0 g/L (NH4)2-H-citrate; 4.0 mL/L MgSO4 (1 M); 6.0 mL/L trace element solution; 0.02 g/L thiamine, 20 g/L glucoseStationary PhaseBioreactor, pH controlled, aerated37 oCPark, C., Park, C., Lee, Y., Lee, S.Y., Oh, H.B., Lee, J. (2011) Determination of the Intracellular Concentration of Metabolites in Escherichia coli Collected during the Exponential and Stationary Growth Phases using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Bull Korean Chem. Soc. 32: 524-530.
300± 19 uMK120.2 g/L NH4Cl, 2.0 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 3.25 g/L KH2PO4, 2.5 g/L K2HPO4, 1.5 g/L NaH2PO4, 0.5 g/L MgSO4; trace substances: 10 mg/L CaCl2, 0.5 mg/L ZnSO4, 0.25 mg/L CuCl2, 0.25 mg/L MnSO4, 0.175 mg/L CoCl2, 0.125 mg/L H3BO3, 2.5 mg/L AlCl3, 0.5 mg/L Na2MoO4, 10Stationary Phase, glucose limitedBioreactor, pH controlled, aerated, dilution rate=0.125 L/h37 oCPMID: 11488613
130± 40 uMBW25113M9 Minimal Media, 4 g/L GlucoseMid-Log PhaseBioreactor, pH controlled, O2 controlled, dilution rate: 0.2/h37 oCPMID: 15158257
8± 0 uMW31104.0 g/L Na2SO4; 5.36 g/L (NH4)2SO4; 1.0 g/L NH4Cl; 7.3 g/L K2HPO4; 1.8 g/L NaH2PO4 H2O; 12.0 g/L (NH4)2-H-citrate; 4.0 mL/L MgSO4 (1 M); 6.0 mL/L trace element solution; 0.02 g/L thiamine, 20 g/L glucoseMid Log PhaseBioreactor, pH controlled, aerated, dilution rate=0.125 L/h37 oCPark, C., Park, C., Lee, Y., Lee, S.Y., Oh, H.B., Lee, J. (2011) Determination of the Intracellular Concentration of Metabolites in Escherichia coli Collected during the Exponential and Stationary Growth Phases using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Bull Korean Chem. Soc. 32: 524-530.
Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-1901000300-57c996f08055dba75dd7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0902000000-dffb00601bfc54014ae4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-2901000000-155f0890adf4c76dca85View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0arr-6820231930-984ae0f98e0d17e4a7fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-003r-3910100000-87da6b6d742efbc6e74aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-057i-5900000000-8701decc3b2311880b97View in MoNA
References
References:
  • Al-Buheissi SZ, Patel HR, Meinl W, Hewer A, Bryan RL, Glatt H, Miller RA, Phillips DH: N-Acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase activity in human prostate: potential for carcinogen activation. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006 Jun;16(6):391-9. Pubmed: 16708048
  • Bennett, B. D., Kimball, E. H., Gao, M., Osterhout, R., Van Dien, S. J., Rabinowitz, J. D. (2009). "Absolute metabolite concentrations and implied enzyme active site occupancy in Escherichia coli." Nat Chem Biol 5:593-599. Pubmed: 19561621
  • Blank ML, Smith ZL, Fitzgerald V, Snyder F: The CoA-independent transacylase in PAF biosynthesis: tissue distribution and molecular species selectivity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Feb 9;1254(3):295-301. Pubmed: 7857969
  • Boden G, Jadali F, White J, Liang Y, Mozzoli M, Chen X, Coleman E, Smith C: Effects of fat on insulin-stimulated carbohydrate metabolism in normal men. J Clin Invest. 1991 Sep;88(3):960-6. Pubmed: 1885781
  • Buchholz, A., Takors, R., Wandrey, C. (2001). "Quantification of intracellular metabolites in Escherichia coli K12 using liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric techniques." Anal Biochem 295:129-137. Pubmed: 11488613
  • Constantin-Teodosiu D, Carlin JI, Cederblad G, Harris RC, Hultman E: Acetyl group accumulation and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in human muscle during incremental exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1991 Dec;143(4):367-72. Pubmed: 1815472
  • Constantin-Teodosiu D, Peirce NS, Fox J, Greenhaff PL: Muscle pyruvate availability can limit the flux, but not activation, of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex during submaximal exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2004 Dec 1;561(Pt 2):647-55. Epub 2004 Oct 7. Pubmed: 15579544
  • Crystal HA, Davies P: Cortical substance P-like immunoreactivity in cases of Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Neurochem. 1982 Jun;38(6):1781-4. Pubmed: 6176686
  • Evans MK, Savasi I, Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL: Effects of acetate infusion and hyperoxia on muscle substrate phosphorylation after onset of moderate exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;281(6):E1144-50. Pubmed: 11701427
  • Girard J: [Contribution of free fatty acids to impairment of insulin secretion and action. mechanism of beta-cell lipotoxicity] Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Dec;21 Spec No:19-25. Pubmed: 16598900
  • Griffin MJ, Sul HS: Insulin regulation of fatty acid synthase gene transcription: roles of USF and SREBP-1c. IUBMB Life. 2004 Oct;56(10):595-600. Pubmed: 15814457
  • Ingebretsen OC, Bakken AM, Farstad M: The content of coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA and long-chain acyl-CoA in human blood platelets. Clin Chim Acta. 1982 Dec 23;126(3):307-13. Pubmed: 7151284
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Michno A, Raszeja-Specht A, Jankowska-Kulawy A, Pawelczyk T, Szutowicz A: Effect of L-carnitine on acetyl-CoA content and activity of blood platelets in healthy and diabetic persons. Clin Chem. 2005 Sep;51(9):1673-82. Epub 2005 Jul 14. Pubmed: 16020499
  • Michno A, Skibowska A, Raszeja-Specht A, Cwikowska J, Szutowicz A: The role of adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase in the metabolism of acetyl coenzyme a and function of blood platelets in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2004 Jan;53(1):66-72. Pubmed: 14681844
  • Park, C., Park, C., Lee, Y., Lee, S.Y., Oh, H.B., Lee, J. (2011) Determination of the Intracellular Concentration of Metabolites in Escherichia coli Collected during the Exponential and Stationary Growth Phases using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Bull Korean Chem. Soc. 32: 524-530.
  • Peng, L., Arauzo-Bravo, M. J., Shimizu, K. (2004). "Metabolic flux analysis for a ppc mutant Escherichia coli based on 13C-labelling experiments together with enzyme activity assays and intracellular metabolite measurements." FEMS Microbiol Lett 235:17-23. Pubmed: 15158257
  • Peters SJ: Regulation of PDH activity and isoform expression: diet and exercise. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Dec;31(Pt 6):1274-80. Pubmed: 14641042
  • Putman CT, Spriet LL, Hultman E, Dyck DJ, Heigenhauser GJ: Skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase activity during acetate infusion in humans. Am J Physiol. 1995 May;268(5 Pt 1):E1007-17. Pubmed: 7762627
  • Roe CR, Sweetman L, Roe DS, David F, Brunengraber H: Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jul;110(2):259-69. Pubmed: 12122118
  • Skibowska A, Raszeja-Specht A, Szutowicz A: Platelet function and acetyl-coenzyme A metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Sep;41(9):1136-43. Pubmed: 14598862
  • Spriet LL, MacLean DA, Dyck DJ, Hultman E, Cederblad G, Graham TE: Caffeine ingestion and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun;262(6 Pt 1):E891-8. Pubmed: 1616022
  • Szutowicz A, Jankowska A, Tomaszewicz M: [Disturbances of glucose metabolism in epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases] Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2000;34 Suppl 8:59-66. Pubmed: 11780590
  • Szutowicz A, Tomaszewicz M, Jankowska A, Madziar B, Bielarczyk H: [Mechanisms of selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons to neurotoxic stimuli] Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 1999;53(2):263-75. Pubmed: 10355292
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Wysocki SJ, Wilkinson SP, Hahnel R, Wong CY, Panegyres PK: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria, combined with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Aug 2;70(3):399-406. Pubmed: 947633
Synthesis Reference:Tucek, S. The synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A and acetylcholine from citrate and acetate in the nerve endings of mammalian brain. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, General Subjects (1966), 117(1), 278-80.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID15351
HMDB IDHMDB01206
Pubchem Compound ID6302
Kegg IDC00024
ChemSpider ID392413
WikipediaAcetyl-CoA
BioCyc IDACETYL-COA
EcoCyc IDACETYL-COA
Ligand ExpoACO

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
aceF
Uniprot ID:
P06959
Molecular weight:
66096
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + enzyme N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine = CoA + enzyme N(6)-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl)lysine.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
May assist cellular detoxification by acetylating non- metabolizable pyranosides, thereby preventing their reentry into the cell
Gene Name:
lacA
Uniprot ID:
P07464
Molecular weight:
22799
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + a beta-D-galactoside = CoA + a 6-acetyl-beta-D-galactoside.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + glyoxylate = (S)-malate + CoA
Gene Name:
aceB
Uniprot ID:
P08997
Molecular weight:
60273
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + glyoxylate = (S)-malate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in 2-isopropylmalate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (2-oxoisovalerate) to form 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (2-isopropylmalate)
Gene Name:
leuA
Uniprot ID:
P09151
Molecular weight:
57297
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + H(2)O = (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in formate C-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate
Gene Name:
pflB
Uniprot ID:
P09373
Molecular weight:
85357
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L- glutamate
Gene Name:
argA
Uniprot ID:
P0A6C5
Molecular weight:
49195
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation reaction of fatty acid synthesis by the addition to an acyl acceptor of two carbons from malonyl-ACP. Catalyzes the first condensation reaction which initiates fatty acid synthesis and may therefore play a role in governing the total rate of fatty acid production. Possesses both acetoacetyl-ACP synthase and acetyl transacylase activities. Has some substrate specificity for acetyl-CoA. Its substrate specificity determines the biosynthesis of straight-chain of fatty acids instead of branched-chain
Gene Name:
fabH
Uniprot ID:
P0A6R0
Molecular weight:
33515
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] = acetoacetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + CoA + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme acetylates the N-terminal alanine of ribosomal protein S18
Gene Name:
rimI
Uniprot ID:
P0A944
Molecular weight:
16610
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + ribosomal-protein L-alanine = CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine.
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme acetylates the N-terminal alanine of ribosomal protein S5. Plays also a role in the temperature regulation of pap pilin transcription
Gene Name:
rimJ
Uniprot ID:
P0A948
Molecular weight:
22688
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + ribosomal-protein L-alanine = CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine.
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Regulates polyamine concentration by their degradation. Acts on spermidine, forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine
Gene Name:
speG
Uniprot ID:
P0A951
Molecular weight:
21887
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine = CoA + an N-acetyldiamine.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + L-serine = CoA + O-acetyl-L- serine
Gene Name:
cysE
Uniprot ID:
P0A9D4
Molecular weight:
29316
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-serine = CoA + O-acetyl-L-serine.
General function:
Involved in carbon-carbon lyase activity
Specific function:
Represents a citryl-ACP lyase
Gene Name:
citE
Uniprot ID:
P0A9I1
Molecular weight:
33109
Reactions
Citrate = acetate + oxaloacetate.
(3S)-citryl-CoA = acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate.
General function:
Involved in phosphate acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + phosphate = CoA + acetyl phosphate
Gene Name:
pta
Uniprot ID:
P0A9M8
Molecular weight:
77171
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + phosphate = CoA + acetyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Activation of pyruvate formate-lyase 1 under anaerobic conditions by generation of an organic free radical, using S- adenosylmethionine and reduced flavodoxin as cosubstrates to produce 5'-deoxy-adenosine
Gene Name:
pflA
Uniprot ID:
P0A9N4
Molecular weight:
28204
Reactions
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + dihydroflavodoxin + [formate C-acetyltransferase]-glycine = 5'-deoxyadenosine + L-methionine + flavodoxin semiquinone + [formate C-acetyltransferase]-glycin-2-yl radical.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes
Gene Name:
lpdA
Uniprot ID:
P0A9P0
Molecular weight:
50688
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD(+) = protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH.
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Controls translation of mRNA for both itself and the alpha-subunit (accA) by binding to a probable hairpin in the 5' of the mRNA. Binding to mRNA inhibits translation; this is partially relieved by acetyl-CoA. Increasing amounts of mRNA also inhibit enzyme activity
Gene Name:
accD
Uniprot ID:
P0A9Q5
Molecular weight:
33322
Reactions
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme has three activities:ADH, ACDH, and PFL- deactivase. In aerobic conditions it acts as a hydrogen peroxide scavenger. The PFL deactivase activity catalyzes the quenching of the pyruvate-formate-lyase catalyst in an iron, NAD, and CoA dependent reaction
Gene Name:
adhE
Uniprot ID:
P0A9Q7
Molecular weight:
96126
Reactions
An alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH.
Acetaldehyde + CoA + NAD(+) = acetyl-CoA + NADH.
General function:
Involved in glycine C-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate to glycine and acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
kbl
Uniprot ID:
P0AB77
Molecular weight:
43117
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + glycine = CoA + 2-amino-3-oxobutanoate.
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin on its carrier protein (BCCP) and then the CO(2) group is transferred by the carboxyltransferase to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA
Gene Name:
accA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABD5
Molecular weight:
35241
Reactions
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
This protein is a component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase complex; first, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of the carrier protein and then the transcarboxylase transfers the carboxyl group to form malonyl-CoA
Gene Name:
accB
Uniprot ID:
P0ABD8
Molecular weight:
16687
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA
Gene Name:
gltA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABH7
Molecular weight:
48015
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the last two sequential reactions in the de novo biosynthetic pathway for UDP-GlcNAc. Responsible for the acetylation of Glc-N-1-P to give GlcNAc-1-P and for the uridyl transfer from UTP to GlcNAc-1-P which produces UDP-GlcNAc
Gene Name:
glmU
Uniprot ID:
P0ACC7
Molecular weight:
49190
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate.
UTP + N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate = diphosphate + UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
aceE
Uniprot ID:
P0AFG8
Molecular weight:
99668
Reactions
Pyruvate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine = [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes thiolytic cleavage of beta-ketoadipyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
paaJ
Uniprot ID:
P0C7L2
Molecular weight:
42276
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoadipyl-CoA.
2,3-dehydroadipyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which acetyl-CoA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed. Involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of long-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
fadA
Uniprot ID:
P21151
Molecular weight:
40876
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in ligase activity
Specific function:
This protein is a component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase complex; first, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of the carrier protein and then the transcarboxylase transfers the carboxyl group to form malonyl-CoA
Gene Name:
accC
Uniprot ID:
P24182
Molecular weight:
49320
Reactions
ATP + biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) = ADP + phosphate + carboxy-biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein].
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Enables the cell to use acetate during aerobic growth to generate energy via the TCA cycle, and biosynthetic compounds via the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylates CheY, the response regulator involved in flagellar movement and chemotaxis
Gene Name:
acs
Uniprot ID:
P27550
Molecular weight:
72093
Reactions
ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate
Gene Name:
pflD
Uniprot ID:
P32674
Molecular weight:
85959
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
Activation of pyruvate formate-lyase 2 under anaerobic conditions by generation of an organic free radical, using S- adenosylmethionine and reduced flavodoxin as cosubstrates to produce 5'-deoxy-adenosine
Gene Name:
pflC
Uniprot ID:
P32675
Molecular weight:
32429
Reactions
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + dihydroflavodoxin + [formate C-acetyltransferase]-glycine = 5'-deoxyadenosine + L-methionine + flavodoxin semiquinone + [formate C-acetyltransferase]-glycin-2-yl radical.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Accounts for almost the entire malate-synthesizing activity in cells metabolizing glyoxylate
Gene Name:
glcB
Uniprot ID:
P37330
Molecular weight:
80488
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + glyoxylate = (S)-malate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in formate C-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
tdcE
Uniprot ID:
P42632
Molecular weight:
85935
Reactions
Propionyl-CoA + formate = CoA + 2-oxobutanoate.
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Oxidoreductase required for the transfer of electrons from pyruvate to flavodoxin (Potential)
Gene Name:
ydbK
Uniprot ID:
P52647
Molecular weight:
128823
Reactions
Pyruvate + CoA + oxidized flavodoxin = acetyl-CoA + CO(2) + reduced flavodoxin.
General function:
Involved in citrate CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Represents a citrate:acetyl-ACP transferase
Gene Name:
citF
Uniprot ID:
P75726
Molecular weight:
55172
Reactions
Citrate = acetate + oxaloacetate.
Acetyl-CoA + citrate = acetate + (3S)-citryl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate
Gene Name:
ybiW
Uniprot ID:
P75793
Molecular weight:
90125
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + formate = CoA + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
atoD
Uniprot ID:
P76458
Molecular weight:
23526
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
atoA
Uniprot ID:
P76459
Molecular weight:
22960
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetate = a fatty acid anion + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
atoB
Uniprot ID:
P76461
Molecular weight:
40352
Reactions
2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which acetyl-CoA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed. Strongly involved in the anaerobic degradation of long and medium-chain fatty acids in the presence of nitrate and weakly involved in the aerobic degradation of long- chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
fadI
Uniprot ID:
P76503
Molecular weight:
46530
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Could possibly oxidize fatty acids using specific components
Gene Name:
paaG
Uniprot ID:
P77467
Molecular weight:
28404
Reactions
2-(1,2-epoxy-1,2-dihydrophenyl)acetyl-CoA = 2-oxepin-2(3H)-ylideneacetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + an N-hydroxyarylamine = CoA + an N-acetoxyarylamine
Gene Name:
nhoA
Uniprot ID:
P77567
Molecular weight:
32274
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an N-hydroxyarylamine = CoA + an N-acetoxyarylamine.
General function:
Involved in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetyl-CoA, using NAD(+) and coenzyme A. Is the final enzyme in the meta- cleavage pathway for the degradation of 3-phenylpropanoate. Functions as a chaperone protein for folding of mhpE
Gene Name:
mhpF
Uniprot ID:
P77580
Molecular weight:
33442
Reactions
Acetaldehyde + CoA + NAD(+) = acetyl-CoA + NADH.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Acetylates maltose and other sugars
Gene Name:
maa
Uniprot ID:
P77791
Molecular weight:
20096
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + maltose = CoA + acetyl-maltose.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA
Gene Name:
yqeF
Uniprot ID:
Q46939
Molecular weight:
41018
Reactions
2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Putative O-acetyltransferase that transfers an O-acetyl group to the O antigen
Gene Name:
wbbJ
Uniprot ID:
P37750
Molecular weight:
21675
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Transaminase converting thymidine diphosphate(TDP)-4- keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to TDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, the immediate precursor of the ECA sugar TDP-Fuc4NAc
Gene Name:
rffC
Uniprot ID:
P27832
Molecular weight:
24220
General function:
Involved in FMN binding
Specific function:
Low-potential electron donor to a number of redox enzymes (Potential)
Gene Name:
fldB
Uniprot ID:
P0ABY4
Molecular weight:
19700
General function:
Involved in FMN binding
Specific function:
Low-potential electron donor to a number of redox enzymes (Potential). Involved in the reactivation of inactive cob(II)alamin in methionine synthase
Gene Name:
fldA
Uniprot ID:
P61949
Molecular weight:
19737
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
eutD
Uniprot ID:
P77218
Molecular weight:
36066
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acts as a radical domain for damaged PFL and possibly other radical proteins
Gene Name:
grcA
Uniprot ID:
P68066
Molecular weight:
14284
General function:
Involved in fatty acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Carrier of the growing fatty acid chain in fatty acid biosynthesis
Gene Name:
acpP
Uniprot ID:
P0A6A8
Molecular weight:
8640
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
eutE
Uniprot ID:
P77445
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
yncA
Uniprot ID:
P76112
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in tRNA binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ypfI
Uniprot ID:
P76562
Molecular weight:
74892
Reactions
(Elongator tRNA(Met))-cytidine(34) + ATP + acetyl-CoA = (elongator tRNA(Met))-N(4)-acetylcytidine(34) + ADP + phosphate + CoA.