Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 10:28:08 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:08 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00641
Identification
Name:L-Glutamine
Description:Glutamine (Gln) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. Its side chain is an amide; it is formed by replacing a side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group. Glutamine has a variety of biochemical functions including: 1. As any other amino acid, a major role in protein synthesis. 2. Cellular energy source, next to glucose. 3. Nitrogen donor for many anabolic processes. 4.Carbon source, refilling the Citric acid cycle. (Wikipedia)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • (2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoate
  • (2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoate
  • (2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
  • (S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoate
  • (S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
  • 2-Aminoglutaramate
  • 2-Aminoglutaramic acid
  • Cebrogen
  • g-Glutamine
  • Gamma-Glutamine
  • Glavamin
  • Gln
  • Glum
  • Glumin
  • Glutamate 5-amide
  • Glutamate amide
  • Glutamic acid 5-amide
  • Glutamic acid amide
  • Glutamine
  • L-(+)-Glutamine
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramate
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramic acid
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramidate
  • L-2-Aminoglutaramidic acid
  • L-Glutamate 5-amide
  • L-Glutamate g-amide
  • L-Glutamate gamma-amide
  • L-Glutamate γ-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid 5-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid g-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid gamma-amide
  • L-Glutamic acid γ-amide
  • L-Glutamid
  • L-Glutamide
  • L-Glutamin
  • L-Glutamine
  • L-Glutaminsaeure-5-amid
  • Levoglutamid
  • Levoglutamida
  • Levoglutamide
  • Levoglutamidum
  • Levoglutamina
  • Polyglutamine
  • Proglumide
  • Q
  • Stimulina
  • γ-Glutamine
Chemical Formula:C5H10N2O3
Weight:Average: 146.1445
Monoisotopic: 146.069142196
InChI Key:ZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
CAS number:56-85-9
IUPAC Name:(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:L-glutamine
SMILES:N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:185 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:41.3 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]; 41.3 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.64 [CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility97.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-4ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.41 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity33.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Hydrogen carbonate >2 ADP + Carbamoylphosphate + L-Glutamate +2 Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamine > ADP + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamine > ADP + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Pyruvic acid
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonium
L-Glutamine + Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P > Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamide + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + NADPH >2 L-Glutamate + NADP
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonium > ADP + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + tRNA(Gln) > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + Pyrophosphate
L-Glutamine + Water + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate <> L-Glutamate + Pyrophosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Xanthylic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate + Guanosine monophosphate +2 Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Uridine triphosphate > ADP + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate +2 Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonium
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
2 L-Glutamate + NAD <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
2 L-Glutamate + NADP <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamine
L-Glutamine + Water <> L-Glutamate + Ammonia
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate <> L-Glutamate + Glucosamine 6-phosphate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate <> L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + tRNA(Gln) + tRNA(Gln) <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Glutaminyl-tRNA + Glutaminyl-tRNA
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphate + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine <> D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + AICAR + L-Glutamate
6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water <> 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > Hydrogen ion + 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + L-Asparagine + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water > Hydrogen ion + Carbamoylphosphate + L-Glutamate + Phosphate + ADP
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + ADP + Phosphate + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate + NADP < Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + AICAR
L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Ammonia
Ammonia + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > L-Glutamine + ADP + Phosphate
Water + L-Glutamine + Xanthylic acid + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine > Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + NAD + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Chorismate <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate < Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + L-Glutamine + Water
ala-gln + Water > L-Alanine + L-Glutamine
gly-gln + Water > Glycine + L-Glutamine
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Carbonic acid + Water >2 ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Carbonic acid + Water >2 ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate > L-Glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamine
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonia
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonia
2 L-Glutamate + NADP > L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
2 L-Glutamate + NADP > L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
5-((5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino)-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-Glutamine > imidazole-glycerol phosphate + N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide + L-Glutamate + Water
5-((5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino)-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-Glutamine > imidazole-glycerol phosphate + N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide + L-Glutamate + Water
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + 2-(Formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + tRNA(Gln) > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln)
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water + Ammonia + Carbamic acid + Carboxyphosphate <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
2 L-Glutamate + NADP + Ammonia + Water <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Ammonia + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Glutamate <> Phosphate + L-Glutamine + Adenosine diphosphate + ADP
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium + L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + ADP
2 L-Glutamic acid + NADP + 2 L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + NADPH + Hydrogen ion + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen ion + NADPH >2 L-Glutamic acid + NADP +2 L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + L-Aspartic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Hydrogen carbonate + Water + L-Glutamine + 2 Adenosine triphosphate >2 Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + L-Glutamic acid +2 Hydrogen ion + Carbamoylphosphate +2 ADP + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen ion + tRNA(Gln) > Adenosine diphosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) + ADP
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + Hydrogen ion + 5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + L-Glutamate
L-Aspartic acid + Water + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + L-Aspartic acid > L-Asparagine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen ion + 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water + L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + NAD + L-Glutamate
D-tagatofuranose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate > L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate + 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water + L-Glutamine > 5-Phosphoribosylamine + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine + L-Glutamate
5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + Water + L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide > 2-(Formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamic acid + Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + ADP
Xanthylic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid +2 Hydrogen ion + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate > Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Cytidine triphosphate + ADP + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamine + ADP
L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamine + ADP
D-tagatofuranose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
More...

SMPDB Pathways:
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism IPW000886 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Asparagine biosynthesisPW000813 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Aspartate metabolismPW000787 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolismPW000769 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Folate biosynthesisPW000908 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
L-glutamate metabolismPW000789 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
L-glutamate metabolism IIPW001886 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesisPW000831 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
NAD biosynthesisPW000829 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
NAD salvagePW000830 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Nitrogen metabolismPW000755 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
O-antigen building blocks biosynthesisPW002089 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pyrimidine metabolismPW000942 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Histidine biosynthesisPW000984 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Thiamin diphosphate biosynthesisPW002028 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Tryptophan metabolismPW000815 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
arginine metabolismPW000790 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
histidine biosynthesisPW000810 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis IIPW001905 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis IIIPW002059 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis IPW000906 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis I 2PW002062 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesisPW000910 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis 1435709748PW000960 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis 2PW002033 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tRNA Charging 2PW000803 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tRNA chargingPW000799 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tryptophan metabolism IIPW001916 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
3810± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glucoseMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
4950± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glycerolMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
3060± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L acetateMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
494± 0 uMBW2511348 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 10 mM NaCl, 45 mM (NH4)2SO4, supplemented with 1 mM MgSO4, 1 mg/l thiamine·HCl, 5.6 mg/l CaCl2, 8 mg/l FeCl3, 1 mg/l MnCl2·4H2O, 1.7 mg/l ZnCl2, 0.43 mg/l CuCl2·2H2O, 0.6 mg/l CoCl2·2H2O and 0.6 mg/l Na2MoO4·2H2O. 4 g/L GlucoStationary Phase, glucose limitedBioreactor, pH controlled, O2 and CO2 controlled, dilution rate: 0.2/h37 oCPMID: 17379776
184± 23 uMBL21 DE3Luria-Bertani (LB) mediaStationary phase cultures (overnight culture)Shake flask37 oCExperimentally Determined
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249± 20 uMBL21 DE3Luria-Bertani (LB) mediaStationary phase cultures (overnight culture)Shake flask37 oCExperimentally Determined
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Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-4921200000-5446333d9aa592da8a07View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-ce2b15fe45c57a30c6bbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-1900000000-7be5eab1056d2a249ab5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5dc2d147bea250c7b80eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fb9-0921000000-5dcbab01982f543f7925View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004j-0940000000-102c9a43b5153f06927fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-716b1947d48f42862cdfView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9610000000-bfd7aa529a6e7f62de43View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0059-3900000000-c8f487d1a561e49327c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-eee04836e7577e11d0d0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-54ffbe5be8d7dbede389View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-79283391c985f8286677View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6afbd5929b6e2371a371View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d5bd83614703b048228eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-dc8def340a2655f9a399View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-47e3e94a4387c53e0bd6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c1acfa3750a90d81ce15View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-93f01bccbc98f18d4b07View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ce03708ec9ce55cd8952View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933201000-9339494cebedd9c39135View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-64561a4c3590d5994e37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fdcdd7591fb182d804e2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dm-0030900000-66314ae704783630947aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933100000-8798d2e46a415bb1029aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-dddea137e500a9b364ccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a78f8e4b2d6b37917b21View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-8c6e1eb7de6f70911080View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fa42fc4bcba608992804View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-074610880ea19a417f60View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-059x-9200000000-8b7dae54eb8325667bd7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-e115d9215eea3f0c3629View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-55b1ac62eea66274b984View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001j-0900000000-c9c71895033d66cb2becView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-bc4e294b8a3fd8c5abceView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • Avila J, Barbaro B, Gangemi A, Romagnoli T, Kuechle J, Hansen M, Shapiro J, Testa G, Sankary H, Benedetti E, Lakey J, Oberholzer J: Intra-ductal glutamine administration reduces oxidative injury during human pancreatic islet isolation. Am J Transplant. 2005 Dec;5(12):2830-7. Pubmed: 16302995
  • Bennett, B. D., Kimball, E. H., Gao, M., Osterhout, R., Van Dien, S. J., Rabinowitz, J. D. (2009). "Absolute metabolite concentrations and implied enzyme active site occupancy in Escherichia coli." Nat Chem Biol 5:593-599. Pubmed: 19561621
  • Boza JJ, Dangin M, Moennoz D, Montigon F, Vuichoud J, Jarret A, Pouteau E, Gremaud G, Oguey-Araymon S, Courtois D, Woupeyi A, Finot PA, Ballevre O: Free and protein-bound glutamine have identical splanchnic extraction in healthy human volunteers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):G267-74. Pubmed: 11408280
  • Choudry HA, Pan M, Karinch AM, Souba WW: Branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutritional support in surgical and cancer patients. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):314S-8S. Pubmed: 16365105
  • Coeffier M, Miralles-Barrachina O, Le Pessot F, Lalaude O, Daveau M, Lavoinne A, Lerebours E, Dechelotte P: Influence of glutamine on cytokine production by human gut in vitro. Cytokine. 2001 Feb 7;13(3):148-54. Pubmed: 11161457
  • Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. Pubmed: 1931558
  • Cooper AJ: Ammonia metabolism in normal and portacaval-shunted rats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;272:23-46. Pubmed: 2103690
  • Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
  • Frayn KN, Khan K, Coppack SW, Elia M: Amino acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 May;80(5):471-4. Pubmed: 1851687
  • Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
  • Ishii, N., Nakahigashi, K., Baba, T., Robert, M., Soga, T., Kanai, A., Hirasawa, T., Naba, M., Hirai, K., Hoque, A., Ho, P. Y., Kakazu, Y., Sugawara, K., Igarashi, S., Harada, S., Masuda, T., Sugiyama, N., Togashi, T., Hasegawa, M., Takai, Y., Yugi, K., Arakawa, K., Iwata, N., Toya, Y., Nakayama, Y., Nishioka, T., Shimizu, K., Mori, H., Tomita, M. (2007). "Multiple high-throughput analyses monitor the response of E. coli to perturbations." Science 316:593-597. Pubmed: 17379776
  • Jian ZM, Cao JD, Zhu XG, Zhao WX, Yu JC, Ma EL, Wang XR, Zhu MW, Shu H, Liu YW: The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Sep-Oct;23(5 Suppl):S62-6. Pubmed: 10483898
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • McAnena OJ, Moore FA, Moore EE, Jones TN, Parsons P: Selective uptake of glutamine in the gastrointestinal tract: confirmation in a human study. Br J Surg. 1991 Apr;78(4):480-2. Pubmed: 1903318
  • Melis GC, Boelens PG, van der Sijp JR, Popovici T, De Bandt JP, Cynober L, van Leeuwen PA: The feeding route (enteral or parenteral) affects the plasma response of the dipetide Ala-Gln and the amino acids glutamine, citrulline and arginine, with the administration of Ala-Gln in preoperative patients. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jul;94(1):19-26. Pubmed: 16115328
  • Morlion BJ, Stehle P, Wachtler P, Siedhoff HP, Koller M, Konig W, Furst P, Puchstein C: Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg. 1998 Feb;227(2):302-8. Pubmed: 9488531
  • Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
  • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
  • Pennisi P, Gavrilova O, Setser-Portas J, Jou W, Santopietro S, Clemmons D, Yakar S, LeRoith D: Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I treatment inhibits gluconeogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6):2619-30. Epub 2006 Mar 2. Pubmed: 16513827
  • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
  • Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. Pubmed: 9693263
  • Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. Pubmed: 16400059
  • Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  • Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  • Szebenyi G, Morfini GA, Babcock A, Gould M, Selkoe K, Stenoien DL, Young M, Faber PW, MacDonald ME, McPhaul MJ, Brady ST: Neuropathogenic forms of huntingtin and androgen receptor inhibit fast axonal transport. Neuron. 2003 Sep 25;40(1):41-52. Pubmed: 14527432
  • van der Hulst RR, von Meyenfeldt MF, Deutz NE, Soeters PB: Glutamine extraction by the gut is reduced in depleted [corrected] patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Ann Surg. 1997 Jan;225(1):112-21. Pubmed: 8998127
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Vijayendran, C., Barsch, A., Friehs, K., Niehaus, K., Becker, A., Flaschel, E. (2008). "Perceiving molecular evolution processes in Escherichia coli by comprehensive metabolite and gene expression profiling." Genome Biol 9:R72. Pubmed: 18402659
  • Wada A, Yoshida R, Oda K, Fukuba E, Uchida N, Kitagaki H: Acute encephalopathy associated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Oct;26(9):2311-5. Pubmed: 16219838
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference:Jiao, Qingcai; Qian, Shaosong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Xiaoyan. Synthesis of L-glutamine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 7 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID18050
HMDB IDHMDB00641
Pubchem Compound ID5961
Kegg IDC00064
ChemSpider ID5746
WikipediaL-Glutamine
BioCyc IDGLN
EcoCyc IDGLN
Ligand ExpoGLN_LFZW

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansB
Uniprot ID:
P00805
Molecular weight:
36851
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpE
Uniprot ID:
P00895
Molecular weight:
57494
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabA
Uniprot ID:
P00903
Molecular weight:
20772
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpD
Uniprot ID:
P00904
Molecular weight:
56869
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate = anthranilate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamine + tRNA(Gln) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln)
Gene Name:
glnS
Uniprot ID:
P00962
Molecular weight:
63477
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamine + tRNA(Gln) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln).
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
carB
Uniprot ID:
P00968
Molecular weight:
117841
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of GMP from XMP
Gene Name:
guaA
Uniprot ID:
P04079
Molecular weight:
58679
Reactions
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabB
Uniprot ID:
P05041
Molecular weight:
50969
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltB
Uniprot ID:
P09831
Molecular weight:
166708
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltD
Uniprot ID:
P09832
Molecular weight:
52015
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in glutamine catabolic process
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
carA
Uniprot ID:
P0A6F1
Molecular weight:
41431
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA2
Uniprot ID:
P0A6W0
Molecular weight:
33515
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
pyrG
Uniprot ID:
P0A7E5
Molecular weight:
60374
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
glnA
Uniprot ID:
P0A9C5
Molecular weight:
51903
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
purF
Uniprot ID:
P0AG16
Molecular weight:
56488
Reactions
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D- ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2- (formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
purL
Uniprot ID:
P15254
Molecular weight:
141402
Reactions
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in hexosamine metabolism, converting fructose-6P into glucosamine-6P using glutamine as a nitrogen source
Gene Name:
glmS
Uniprot ID:
P17169
Molecular weight:
66894
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a key step in NAD biosynthesis, transforming deamido-NAD into NAD by a two-step reaction
Gene Name:
nadE
Uniprot ID:
P18843
Molecular weight:
30637
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + NH(3) = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+).
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
asnB
Uniprot ID:
P22106
Molecular weight:
62659
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA1
Uniprot ID:
P77454
Molecular weight:
32903
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via the biosynthesis of gamma-L-glutamylputrescine
Gene Name:
puuA
Uniprot ID:
P78061
Molecular weight:
53177
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + putrescine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamylputrescine.
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamine; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
glnP
Uniprot ID:
P0AEQ6
Molecular weight:
24364
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamine. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
glnQ
Uniprot ID:
P10346
Molecular weight:
26731
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
IGPS catalyzes the conversion of PRFAR and glutamine to IGP, AICAR and glutamate. The hisH subunit provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity that produces the ammonia necessary to hisF for the synthesis of IGP and AICAR
Gene Name:
hisH
Uniprot ID:
P60595
Molecular weight:
21653
Reactions
5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine = imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
IGPS catalyzes the conversion of PRFAR and glutamine to IGP, AICAR and glutamate. The hisF subunit catalyzes the cyclization activity that produces IGP and AICAR from PRFAR using the ammonia provided by the hisH subunit
Gene Name:
hisF
Uniprot ID:
P60664
Molecular weight:
28454
Reactions
5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine = imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in a glutamine-transport system glnHPQ
Gene Name:
glnH
Uniprot ID:
P0AEQ3
Molecular weight:
27190

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Probably part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system yecCS for an amino acid. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
yecC
Uniprot ID:
P37774
Molecular weight:
27677
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Probably part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system yecCS for an amino acid; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
yecS
Uniprot ID:
P0AFT2
Molecular weight:
24801
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamine; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
glnP
Uniprot ID:
P0AEQ6
Molecular weight:
24364
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamine. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
glnQ
Uniprot ID:
P10346
Molecular weight:
26731
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in a glutamine-transport system glnHPQ
Gene Name:
glnH
Uniprot ID:
P0AEQ3
Molecular weight:
27190