Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 10:28:02 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:08 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00630
Identification
Name:Cytosine
Description:Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA). It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at position 2). The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 4-Amino-2(1H)-pyrimidinone
  • 4-Amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine
  • 4-Amino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrimidine
  • 4-Aminouracil
  • Cytosine
  • Cytosinimine
Chemical Formula:C4H5N3O
Weight:Average: 111.102
Monoisotopic: 111.043261797
InChI Key:OPTASPLRGRRNAP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C4H5N3O/c5-3-1-2-6-4(8)7-3/h1-2H,(H3,5,6,7,8)
CAS number:71-30-7
IUPAC Name:6-amino-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one
Traditional IUPAC Name:2(1H)-pyrimidinone, 6-amino-
SMILES:NC1=CC=NC(=O)N1
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. These are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentPyrimidones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidone
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:>300 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:8.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP:-1.73 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility30.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.94ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-0.56ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.88 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:
Pyrimidine metabolismPW000942 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
  • salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides PWY0-163
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
14± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glucoseMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
10± 0 uMBW2511348 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 10 mM NaCl, 45 mM (NH4)2SO4, supplemented with 1 mM MgSO4, 1 mg/l thiamine·HCl, 5.6 mg/l CaCl2, 8 mg/l FeCl3, 1 mg/l MnCl2·4H2O, 1.7 mg/l ZnCl2, 0.43 mg/l CuCl2·2H2O, 0.6 mg/l CoCl2·2H2O and 0.6 mg/l Na2MoO4·2H2O. 4 g/L GlucoStationary Phase, glucose limitedBioreactor, pH controlled, O2 and CO2 controlled, dilution rate: 0.2/h37 oCPMID: 17379776
Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udm-3970000000-a0532c16ce6140949915View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udl-4790000000-f8d777863969fe9feeeeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0h6s-2914000000-5c0c43de53d8e6d5ff65View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udm-3970000000-a0532c16ce6140949915View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udl-4790000000-f8d777863969fe9feeeeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0h6s-2914000000-5c0c43de53d8e6d5ff65View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6w-4960000000-b053578e0f2ae00d0808View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gxt-0914000000-bdca724db358d4bc5ccbView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-9400000000-109300546706ee372e62View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-1900000000-ce9c385be713873945a4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kf-9100000000-5d27ff55f5080da7aaf0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-585d7d52c8ceb70d1b25View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03k9-0970000000-1491957a90e606f28d03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-f79bcd2133156449152cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-155769b79f7f2d14ee92View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-4b1d0c842bcd05ceed1bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0910000000-7cd7c6a6f6e7c02ed6f1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-71a5fe9af8fc82824d54View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-a210a634771936e0ffd6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-084e35ced5f5834ca93eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-d23ab5cfeba2d0a6ccffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-02tc-9500000000-3b81b2a441135c25b1e3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-e57731b8ed024624cf7aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-a1679050e95cc271b8b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-57b23eb60e1f7ce1ca97View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-d23ab5cfeba2d0a6ccffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-02tc-9500000000-b9d5621a816bed354c10View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-e57731b8ed024624cf7aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-4047bc076c5529ab5953View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03dj-9600000000-4b29d871234eed6b5e40View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uxv-9000000000-e7c1aa90d5d06c5c13b4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-b19c12744f9718502007View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-9100000000-1cf86d26f0f1d0794e0dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-51460ed94e186a6f38e0View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
References
References:
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  • Bennett, B. D., Kimball, E. H., Gao, M., Osterhout, R., Van Dien, S. J., Rabinowitz, J. D. (2009). "Absolute metabolite concentrations and implied enzyme active site occupancy in Escherichia coli." Nat Chem Biol 5:593-599. Pubmed: 19561621
  • Carotti D, Funiciello S, Lavia P, Caiafa P, Strom R: Different effects of histone H1 on de novo DNA methylation in vitro depend on both the DNA base composition and the DNA methyltransferase. Biochemistry. 1996 Sep 10;35(36):11660-7. Pubmed: 8794746
  • Cheng JC, Yoo CB, Weisenberger DJ, Chuang J, Wozniak C, Liang G, Marquez VE, Greer S, Orntoft TF, Thykjaer T, Jones PA: Preferential response of cancer cells to zebularine. Cancer Cell. 2004 Aug;6(2):151-8. Pubmed: 15324698
  • Costa E, Grayson DR, Mitchell CP, Tremolizzo L, Veldic M, Guidotti A: GABAergic cortical neuron chromatin as a putative target to treat schizophrenia vulnerability. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2003;15(2):121-42. Pubmed: 14977367
  • Harvey BG, Maroni J, O'Donoghue KA, Chu KW, Muscat JC, Pippo AL, Wright CE, Hollmann C, Wisnivesky JP, Kessler PD, Rasmussen HS, Rosengart TK, Crystal RG: Safety of local delivery of low- and intermediate-dose adenovirus gene transfer vectors to individuals with a spectrum of morbid conditions. Hum Gene Ther. 2002 Jan 1;13(1):15-63. Pubmed: 11779412
  • Ishii, N., Nakahigashi, K., Baba, T., Robert, M., Soga, T., Kanai, A., Hirasawa, T., Naba, M., Hirai, K., Hoque, A., Ho, P. Y., Kakazu, Y., Sugawara, K., Igarashi, S., Harada, S., Masuda, T., Sugiyama, N., Togashi, T., Hasegawa, M., Takai, Y., Yugi, K., Arakawa, K., Iwata, N., Toya, Y., Nakayama, Y., Nishioka, T., Shimizu, K., Mori, H., Tomita, M. (2007). "Multiple high-throughput analyses monitor the response of E. coli to perturbations." Science 316:593-597. Pubmed: 17379776
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Machwe A, Orren DK, Bohr VA: Accelerated methylation of ribosomal RNA genes during the cellular senescence of Werner syndrome fibroblasts. FASEB J. 2000 Sep;14(12):1715-24. Pubmed: 10973920
  • Putta MR, Zhu F, Li Y, Bhagat L, Cong Y, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S: Novel oligodeoxynucleotide agonists of TLR9 containing N3-Me-dC or N1-Me-dG modifications. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006 Jun 23;34(11):3231-8. Print 2006. Pubmed: 16798912
  • Rodriguez Ortner E, Hayes RB, Weissfeld J, Gelmann EP: Effect of homeodomain protein NKX3.1 R52C polymorphism on prostate gland size. Urology. 2006 Feb;67(2):311-5. Epub 2006 Jan 25. Pubmed: 16442598
  • Sawamura D, Abe R, Goto M, Akiyama M, Hemmi H, Akira S, Shimizu H: Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the skin induces dermatitis by activation of monocytes through toll-like receptor 9. J Gene Med. 2005 May;7(5):664-71. Pubmed: 15655803
  • Sigalotti L, Coral S, Nardi G, Spessotto A, Cortini E, Cattarossi I, Colizzi F, Altomonte M, Maio M: Promoter methylation controls the expression of MAGE2, 3 and 4 genes in human cutaneous melanoma. J Immunother. 2002 Jan-Feb;25(1):16-26. Pubmed: 11924907
  • Tawa R, Ueno S, Yamamoto K, Yamamoto Y, Sagisaka K, Katakura R, Kayama T, Yoshimoto T, Sakurai H, Ono T: Methylated cytosine level in human liver DNA does not decline in aging process. Mech Ageing Dev. 1992 Mar 1;62(3):255-61. Pubmed: 1583911
  • Thajeb P, Ma YS, Tzen CY, Chuang CK, Wu TY, Chen SC, Wei YH: Oculopharyngeal somatic myopathy in a patient with a novel large-scale 3,399 bp deletion and a homoplasmic T5814C transition of the mitochondrial DNA. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006 Jun;108(4):407-10. Pubmed: 16644408
  • Tsuchiya K, Tajima H, Yamada M, Takahashi H, Kuwae T, Sunaga K, Katsube N, Ishitani R: Disclosure of a pro-apoptotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter: anti-dementia drugs depress its activation in apoptosis. Life Sci. 2004 May 14;74(26):3245-58. Pubmed: 15094325
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference:Hitchings, George H.; Elion, Gertrude B.; Falco, Elvira A.; Russell, Peter B. New synthesis of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. Journal of Biological Chemistry (1949), 177 357-60.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16040
HMDB IDHMDB00630
Pubchem Compound ID597
Kegg IDC00380
ChemSpider ID577
WikipediaCytosine
BioCyc IDCYTOSINE
EcoCyc IDCYTOSINE
Ligand ExpoCYT

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing N-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes both purine and pyrimidine ribonucleosides with a broad-substrate specificity with decreasing activity in the order uridine, xanthosine, inosine, adenosine, cytidine, guanosine
Gene Name:
rihC
Uniprot ID:
P22564
Molecular weight:
32560
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
Specific function:
Cytosine + H(2)O = uracil + NH(3)
Gene Name:
codA
Uniprot ID:
P25524
Molecular weight:
47591
Reactions
Cytosine + H(2)O = uracil + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing N-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes cytidine or uridine to ribose and cytosine or uracil, respectively. Has a clear preference for cytidine over uridine. Strictly specific for ribonucleosides. Has a low but significant activity for the purine nucleoside xanthosine
Gene Name:
rihB
Uniprot ID:
P33022
Molecular weight:
33748
Reactions
A pyrimidine nucleoside + H(2)O = D-ribose + a pyrimidine base.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing N-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes with equal efficiency cytidine or uridine to ribose and cytosine or uracil, respectively
Gene Name:
rihA
Uniprot ID:
P41409
Molecular weight:
33823

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleobase transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Required for cytosine transport into the cell
Gene Name:
codB
Uniprot ID:
P0AA82
Molecular weight:
43649
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368