Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 10:24:56 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:07 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00251
Identification
Name:Taurine
DescriptionTaurine is a sulfur amino acid like methionine, cystine, cysteine and homocysteine. It is a lesser-known amino acid because it is not incorporated into the structural building blocks of protein. Taurine has many diverse biological functions serving as a stabilizer of cell membranes and a facilitator in the transport of ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonate
  • 1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonic acid
  • 1-Aminoethane-2-sulphonate
  • 1-Aminoethane-2-sulphonic acid
  • 2-Aminoethanesulfonate
  • 2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid
  • 2-Aminoethanesulphonate
  • 2-Aminoethanesulphonic acid
  • 2-Aminoethylsulfonate
  • 2-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  • 2-Aminoethylsulphonate
  • 2-Aminoethylsulphonic acid
  • 2-Sulfoethylamine
  • 2-Sulphoethylamine
  • Aminoethylsulfonate
  • Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  • Aminoethylsulphonate
  • Aminoethylsulphonic acid
  • Aminoetylsulfonate
  • Aminoetylsulfonic acid
  • Aminoetylsulphonate
  • Aminoetylsulphonic acid
  • B-Aminoethylsulfonate
  • B-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  • B-Aminoethylsulphonate
  • B-Aminoethylsulphonic acid
  • Beta-Aminoethylsulfonate
  • Beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  • Beta-Aminoethylsulphonate
  • Beta-Aminoethylsulphonic acid
  • Ethylaminesulfonate
  • Ethylaminesulfonic acid
  • Ethylaminesulphonate
  • Ethylaminesulphonic acid
  • Taufon
  • Tauphon
  • Taurine
  • β-Aminoethylsulfonate
  • β-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
  • β-Aminoethylsulphonate
  • β-Aminoethylsulphonic acid
Chemical Formula:C2H7NO3S
Weight:Average: 125.147
Monoisotopic: 125.014663785
InChI Key:XOAAWQZATWQOTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C2H7NO3S/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-3H2,(H,4,5,6)
CAS number:107-35-7
IUPAC Name:2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:taurine
SMILES:NCCS(O)(=O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. Organosulfonic acids are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic sulfonic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassOrganosulfonic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentOrganosulfonic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkanesulfonic acid
  • Sulfonyl
  • Organosulfonic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:300 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:80.7 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS-0.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.39 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
ADP + Phosphate + 4 Hydrogen ion + Heme + Nickel(2+) + Iron chelate + Taurine + Molybdate + Magnesium + Fe3+ + Potassium + Polyamine + vitamin B12 + Sulfate + glycerol-3-phosphate + Phosphonate + D-Maltose <> Adenosine triphosphate +3 Hydrogen ion + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + Taurine > ADP + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate + Taurine
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + Taurine > ADP + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate + Taurine
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen + Taurine <> Aminoacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion + Sulfite + Succinic acid
Cysteic acid <> Taurine + Carbon dioxide
(5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide + Taurine <> Peptide + 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine
Taurine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen <> Sulfite + Aminoacetaldehyde + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide
Taurine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Taurine + ADP + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion
Taurine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Taurine + ADP + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion
Taurine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen > Hydrogen ion + Aminoacetaldehyde + Sulfite + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + Taurine > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Taurine
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + Taurine > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Taurine
Taurine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen > Sulfite + Aminoacetaldehyde + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide
Cysteic acid + Cysteic acid > Taurine + Carbon dioxide
Taurine + (5-L-Glutamyl)-peptide > 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine + Peptide
Taurine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen > Sulfite + Succinic acid + Aminoacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide + Sulfite
Taurine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen > Sulfite + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion + Aminoacetaldehyde + Sulfite
Taurine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Taurine + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + ADP
Taurine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Taurine + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + ADP
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen + Taurine <> Aminoacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion + Sulfite + Succinic acid
Taurine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen <> Sulfite + Aminoacetaldehyde + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Oxygen + Taurine <> Aminoacetaldehyde + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion + Sulfite + Succinic acid
SMPDB Pathways:
Sulfur metabolismPW000922 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Taurine MetabolismPW000774 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Taurine Metabolism IPW001028 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
inner membrane transportPW000786 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (butanesulfonate)PW000923 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (ethanesulfonate)PW000925 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (isethionate)PW000926 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (methanesulfonate)PW000927 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
sulfur metabolism (propanesulfonate)PW000924 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000x-9000000000-fc8f496bf8d00c37dd84View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-57e6677f8d16d2985bfcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-6c843965de2368577a54View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9200000000-bc9330a846bf43b4bd3fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0910000000-3db15ccd0e35f4d28cffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uk9-9800000000-2b8831b551e784a41008View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-773b190e6818e815f3c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-a6f41eee062c4713d181View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-a558d03e31ae58106185View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-9cd32466db0b0c9c5c55View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-06101a50ac12515e4fd0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-10d63d9e046e843a5fcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0890202100-ef2de9b47cafa707f789View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-530438ccab9f22503af5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-ad642e440d924dfd8e20View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0097000000-24cfd722ea30b6a3b22dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0790202100-45d57f0101d4cefbc981View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-bd1f04d82f9e675f2303View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-d411fff703670832e445View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0098000000-c86b66ff71cff513520fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-31f44189a2671cf5d2e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00e9-6900000000-cc7fe1badfe13959526dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-ae6465f92e91cfad7276View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-af0ea33a51fe79abee00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-27d6c7ae55f73bb21b3cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-2900000000-a48be30a953f106419c0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0036-9000000000-a96a1a8b53b1b556f6caView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
References
References:
  • Axelson M, Ellis E, Mork B, Garmark K, Abrahamsson A, Bjorkhem I, Ericzon BG, Einarsson C: Bile acid synthesis in cultured human hepatocytes: support for an alternative biosynthetic pathway to cholic acid. Hepatology. 2000 Jun;31(6):1305-12. Pubmed: 10827156
  • Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
  • Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
  • Gonzalez-Quevedo A, Obregon F, Fernandez R, Santiesteban R, Serrano C, Lima L: Amino acid levels and ratios in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with optic neuropathy in Cuba. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(1):51-62. Pubmed: 11842876
  • Gonzalez-Quevedo A, Obregon F, Santiesteban Freixas R, Fernandez R, Lima L: [Amino acids as biochemical markers in epidemic and endemic optic neuropathies] Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1998;50 Suppl:241-4. Pubmed: 10349454
  • Goodman HO, Shihabi Z, Oles KS: Antiepileptic drugs and plasma and platelet taurine in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1989 Mar-Apr;30(2):201-7. Pubmed: 2494044
  • Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. Pubmed: 6198473
  • Hu S, Zhao X, Yin S, Meng J: [A study on the mechanism of taurine postponing the aging process of human fetal brain neural cells] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 1997 Mar;26(2):98-101. Pubmed: 10325611
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Khan SA, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD: In vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for investigating hepatobiliary disease: a review of H and P MRS applications. Liver Int. 2005 Apr;25(2):273-81. Pubmed: 15780050
  • Kopple JD, Vinton NE, Laidlaw SA, Ament ME: Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Nov;52(5):846-53. Pubmed: 2122710
  • Learn DB, Fried VA, Thomas EL: Taurine and hypotaurine content of human leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1990 Aug;48(2):174-82. Pubmed: 2370482
  • McCarty MF: Complementary vascular-protective actions of magnesium and taurine: a rationale for magnesium taurate. Med Hypotheses. 1996 Feb;46(2):89-100. Pubmed: 8692051
  • McMahon GP, O'Kennedy R, Kelly MT: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of taurine in human plasma using pre-column extraction and derivatization. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1996 Jun;14(8-10):1287-94. Pubmed: 8818047
  • Miglis M, Wilder D, Reid T, Bakaltcheva I: Effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system. Platelets. 2002 Feb;13(1):5-10. Pubmed: 11918831
  • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
  • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
  • Schneider SM, Joly F, Gehrardt MF, Badran AM, Myara A, Thuillier F, Coudray-Lucas C, Cynober L, Trivin F, Messing B: Taurine status and response to intravenous taurine supplementation in adults with short-bowel syndrome undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):365-70. Pubmed: 16923232
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  • Stover JF, Morganti-Kosmann MC, Lenzlinger PM, Stocker R, Kempski OS, Kossmann T: Glutamate and taurine are increased in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of severely brain-injured patients. J Neurotrauma. 1999 Feb;16(2):135-42. Pubmed: 10098958
  • Sturman JA, Messing JM, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Neuringer MD: Tissue taurine content and conjugated bile acid composition of rhesus monkey infants fed a human infant soy-protein formula with or without taurine supplementation for 3 months. Neurochem Res. 1988 Apr;13(4):311-6. Pubmed: 3393260
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Vinton NE, Laidlaw SA, Ament ME, Kopple JD: Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition. Pediatr Res. 1987 Apr;21(4):399-403. Pubmed: 3106924
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference:Hu, Libo; Zhu, Hui; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi. Efficient synthesis of taurine and structurally diverse substituted taurines from aziridines. Journal of Organic Chemistry (2007), 72(12), 4543-4546.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID15891
HMDB IDHMDB00251
Pubchem Compound ID1123
Kegg IDC00245
ChemSpider ID1091
WikipediaTaurine
BioCyc IDTAURINE
EcoCyc IDTAURINE
Ligand ExpoTAU

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
(5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = peptide + 5-L-glutamyl amino acid
Gene Name:
ggt
Uniprot ID:
P18956
Molecular weight:
61768
Reactions
A (5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = a peptide + a 5-L-glutamyl amino acid.
Glutathione + H(2)O = L-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of taurine and alpha ketoglutarate to sulfite, aminoacetaldehyde and succinate. Required for the utilization of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) as an alternative sulfur source. Pentane-sulfonic acid, 3- (N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid and 1,3-dioxo-2- isoindolineethanesulfonic acid are also substrates for this enzyme
Gene Name:
tauD
Uniprot ID:
P37610
Molecular weight:
32409
Reactions
Taurine + 2-oxoglutarate + O(2) = sulfite + aminoacetaldehyde + succinate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadA
Uniprot ID:
P69908
Molecular weight:
52685
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadB
Uniprot ID:
P69910
Molecular weight:
52668
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system for taurine. Probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
tauC
Uniprot ID:
Q47539
Molecular weight:
29812
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the ABC transporter complex TauABC involved in taurine import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
tauB
Uniprot ID:
Q47538
Molecular weight:
28297
Reactions
ATP + H(2)O + taurine(Out) = ADP + phosphate + taurine(In).
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system for taurine
Gene Name:
tauA
Uniprot ID:
Q47537
Molecular weight:
34266

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton symporter that senses osmotic shifts and responds by importing osmolytes such as proline, glycine betaine, stachydrine, pipecolic acid, ectoine and taurine. It is both an osmosensor and an osmoregulator which is available to participate early in the bacterial osmoregulatory response
Gene Name:
proP
Uniprot ID:
P0C0L7
Molecular weight:
54845
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system for taurine. Probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
tauC
Uniprot ID:
Q47539
Molecular weight:
29812
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the ABC transporter complex TauABC involved in taurine import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
tauB
Uniprot ID:
Q47538
Molecular weight:
28297
Reactions
ATP + H(2)O + taurine(Out) = ADP + phosphate + taurine(In).
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system for taurine
Gene Name:
tauA
Uniprot ID:
Q47537
Molecular weight:
34266
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368