Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 09:56:41 -0600
Update Date2015-06-03 15:53:10 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00073
Identification
Name:Dopamine
Description:Dopamine is synthesized first by the hydration of the amino acid tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine
  • 3-Hydroxytyramine
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-Pyrocatechol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
  • A-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
  • Alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
  • Alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
  • Deoxyepinephrine
  • Dopamin
  • Dopamine
  • Dopaminum
  • Dopastat
  • Dophamine
  • Dynatra
  • Hydroxytyramin
  • Hydroxytyramine
  • Intropin
  • Oxytyramine
  • Revivan
  • α-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
  • α-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-β-aminoethane
Chemical Formula:C8H11NO2
Weight:Average: 153.1784
Monoisotopic: 153.078978601
InChI Key:VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
CAS number:62-31-7
IUPAC Name:4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
Traditional IUPAC Name:dopamine
SMILES:NCCC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassBenzenediols
Direct ParentCatecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Catecholamine
  • Phenethylamine
  • 2-arylethylamine
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:1
Melting point:128 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:535 mg/mL [HMP experimental]PhysProp
LogP:-0.98 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.43 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP0.03ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:Not Available
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513daView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uxu-4900000000-ff51177ebcb89b8c956cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9200000000-a554eb700a06cecb8292View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-db9813e1025f237a549bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-27e0d71db6d14d79759cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-0900000000-f1cf97c0d0dd509e229eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-aa09a2411e287abe74edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-1900000000-97c42b109cab2005373dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-006x-9700000000-974bd18febffcceea2d6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0f79-0900000000-099173d4201beca9e548View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-9dc09f2661247c9d84b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-8b85fa9aac1ffb4c2873View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9ea16d2057010279d433View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014l-9000000000-32ca2db8fe2b4729ab94View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0f79-0900000000-ff587935c79b4592ffcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-8a35d8a2241bc18d6c50View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-356a4b8f268863c7893eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a88c1004f357858fbc6cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014l-9000000000-271874005dcb90288512View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-cfa7e1cb9f02ffb4447dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00e9-8900000000-88acdc978fe4a64e0fc5View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Barron AB, Maleszka R, Vander Meer RK, Robinson GE: Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 30;104(5):1703-7. Epub 2007 Jan 19. Pubmed: 17237217
  • Bauman A: Unilateral adrenal catecholamine excess. Pheochromocytoma or possible sporadic medullary hyperplasia. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Feb;142(2):377-8. Pubmed: 7059264
  • Berridge KC, Robinson TE: What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 Dec;28(3):309-69. Pubmed: 9858756
  • Brody AL, Mandelkern MA, Olmstead RE, Scheibal D, Hahn E, Shiraga S, Zamora-Paja E, Farahi J, Saxena S, London ED, McCracken JT: Gene variants of brain dopamine pathways and smoking-induced dopamine release in the ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;63(7):808-16. Pubmed: 16818870
  • Cucchi ML, Frattini P, Santagostino G, Preda S, Orecchia G: Catecholamines increase in the urine of non-segmental vitiligo especially during its active phase. Pigment Cell Res. 2003 Apr;16(2):111-6. Pubmed: 12622787
  • Eisenhofer G, Aneman A, Friberg P, Hooper D, Fandriks L, Lonroth H, Hunyady B, Mezey E: Substantial production of dopamine in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3864-71. Pubmed: 9360553
  • Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. Pubmed: 8884658
  • Elchisak MA, Carlson JH: Assay of free and conjugated catecholamines by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr. 1982 Dec 10;233:79-88. Pubmed: 7161364
  • Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
  • Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and male sexual function. Eur Urol. 2001 Dec;40(6):601-8. Pubmed: 11805404
  • Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and sexual function. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Aug;13 Suppl 3:S18-28. Pubmed: 11477488
  • Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. Pubmed: 12649306
  • Jiang H, Betancourt L, Smith RG: Ghrelin amplifies dopamine signaling by cross talk involving formation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor/dopamine receptor subtype 1 heterodimers. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Aug;20(8):1772-85. Epub 2006 Apr 6. Pubmed: 16601073
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • King BM: The rise, fall, and resurrection of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Physiol Behav. 2006 Feb 28;87(2):221-44. Epub 2006 Jan 18. Pubmed: 16412483
  • Kobayashi K, Yasuhara T, Agari T, Muraoka K, Kameda M, Ji Yuan W, Hayase H, Matsui T, Miyoshi Y, Shingo T, Date I: Control of dopamine-secretion by Tet-Off system in an in vivo model of parkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2006 Aug 2;1102(1):1-11. Epub 2006 Jun 27. Pubmed: 16806124
  • Kopieniak M, Wieczorkiewicz-Plaza A, Maciejewski R: Dopamine activity changes in cerebral cortex in the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59(1):382-6. Pubmed: 16146016
  • Mannelli M, Ianni L, Lazzeri C, Castellani W, Pupilli C, La Villa G, Barletta G, Serio M, Franchi F: In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man. Hypertension. 1999 Sep;34(3):398-402. Pubmed: 10489384
  • Nikolelis DP, Drivelos DA, Simantiraki MG, Koinis S: An optical spot test for the detection of dopamine in human urine using stabilized in air lipid films. Anal Chem. 2004 Apr 15;76(8):2174-80. Pubmed: 15080725
  • Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9395-402. Pubmed: 14561867
  • Piazza O, Zito G, Valente A, Tufano R: Effects of dopamine infusion on forearm blood flow in critical patients. Med Sci Monit. 2006 Feb;12(2):CR90-3. Epub 2006 Jan 26. Pubmed: 16449954
  • Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Holmes C, Goldstein DS: Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid catechols support increased central noradrenergic responsiveness in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Sep 15;46(6):756-65. Pubmed: 10494443
  • Raw I, Schmidt BJ, Merzel J: Catecholamines and congenital pain insensitivity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1984;17(3-4):271-9. Pubmed: 6085021
  • Schenarts PJ, Sagraves SG, Bard MR, Toschlog EA, Goettler CE, Newell MA, Rotondo MF: Low-dose dopamine: a physiologically based review. Curr Surg. 2006 May-Jun;63(3):219-25. Pubmed: 16757377
  • Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. Pubmed: 9849813
  • Wang HY, Xiao Y, Han J, Chang XS: Simultaneous determination of dopamine and carvedilol in human serum and urine by first-order derivative fluorometry. Anal Sci. 2005 Nov;21(11):1281-5. Pubmed: 16317894
Synthesis Reference:Budnik, Josef. 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride. Czech. (1986), 2 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID18243
HMDB IDHMDB00073
Pubchem Compound ID681
Kegg IDC03758
ChemSpider ID661
WikipediaDopamine
BioCyc IDDOPAMINE
EcoCyc IDDOPAMINE
Ligand ExpoLDP

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
The enzyme prefers aromatic over aliphatic amines
Gene Name:
tynA
Uniprot ID:
P46883
Molecular weight:
84378
Reactions
RCH(2)NH(2) + H(2)O + O(2) = RCHO + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
2-phenylethylamine + H(2)O + O(2) = phenylacetaldehyde + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368