Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 14:03:00 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:13 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB04037
Identification
Name:Chloride
Description:The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl. Chloride is an important anion in all living systems (being part of NaCl and KCl) and cells actively transport chloride ions to help maintain an appropriate ion balance.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Bertholite
  • Chloor
  • Chlor
  • Chlore
  • Chloride
  • Chloride ion
  • Chlorine
  • Chlorine gas
  • Cl
  • Cl-
  • Cl2
  • Cl-
  • Diatomic chlorine
  • Dichlorine
  • Molecular chlorine
Chemical Formula:Cl
Weight:Average: 35.453
Monoisotopic: 34.968852707
InChI Key:VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI:InChI=1S/ClH/h1H/p-1
CAS number:16887-00-6
IUPAC Name:chloride
Traditional IUPAC Name:chloride
SMILES:[Cl-]
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous halogens. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom is a nobel gas.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous halogens
Direct ParentHomogeneous halogens
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous halogen
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Gas
Charge:-1
Melting point:-101 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:6.3 mg/mL at 25 oC [AMOORE,JE & HAUTALA,E (1983)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:Not Available
KEGG Pathways:
  • Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption ec04960
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
44500± 2000 uMK1216 mM NaH2PO4; 32 mM Na2HPO4; 5 mM (NH4)2SO4; 40 mM NaCl; 5 mM KCl; 0.4 mM MgSO4, 55 mM glucoseStationary Phase (50 mM chloride in media)Shake flask37 oCPMID: 13909522
17100± 900 uMK1216 mM NaH2PO4; 32 mM Na2HPO4; 5 mM (NH4)2SO4; 40 mM NaCl; 5 mM KCl; 0.4 mM MgSO4, 55 mM glucoseMid-Log Phase (50 mM chloride in media)Shake flask37 oCPMID: 13909522
6000± 0 uMK-12Not AvailableNot AvailableNot AvailableNot Available1. Cybercell Database: http://ccdb.wishartlab.com/CCDB/cgi-bin/STAT_NEW.cgi
2. Phillips R., Kondev, J., Theriot, J. (2008) “Physical Biology of the Cell” Garland Science, New York, NY.
Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4fb3d037fe2e74c2a5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4fb3d037fe2e74c2a5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4fb3d037fe2e74c2a5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d488e6da5c7ecb77869aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d488e6da5c7ecb77869aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d488e6da5c7ecb77869aView in MoNA
References
References:
  • Evans RB: Chlorine: state of the art. Lung. 2005 May-Jun;183(3):151-67. Pubmed: 16078037
  • Fainsinger RL: Palliative care in Edmonton. Support Care Cancer. 1995 Mar;3(2):91-2. Pubmed: 7539703
  • Harrison NL: Mechanisms of sleep induction by GABA(A) receptor agonists. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 5:6-12. Pubmed: 17539703
  • Kahle KT, Wilson FH, Lalioti M, Toka H, Qin H, Lifton RP: WNK kinases: molecular regulators of integrated epithelial ion transport. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2004 Sep;13(5):557-62. Pubmed: 15300163
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • SCHULTZ, S. G., WILSON, N. L., EPSTEIN, W. (1962). "Cation transport in Escherichia coli. II. Intracellular chloride concentration." J Gen Physiol 46:159-166. Pubmed: 13909522
  • Tarran R, Donaldson S, Boucher RC: Rationale for hypertonic saline therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jun;28(3):295-302. Pubmed: 17562499
  • Zifarelli G, Pusch M: CLC chloride channels and transporters: a biophysical and physiological perspective. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;158:23-76. Pubmed: 17729441
Synthesis Reference:Weber, Rainer; Bulan, Andreas; Haas, Michel; Warsitz, Rafael; Werner, Knud. Production of chlorine from hydrogen chloride and oxygen. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 30pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2007134861 A1 20071129 CAN 148:35931 AN 2007:1361621
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17996
HMDB IDHMDB00492
Pubchem Compound ID312
Kegg IDC00698
ChemSpider ID306
WikipediaChlorine
BioCyc IDCL-
EcoCyc IDCL-

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific function:
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate
Gene Name:
cysK
Uniprot ID:
P0ABK5
Molecular weight:
34489
Reactions
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate.
3-chloro-L-alanine + thioglycolate = S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine + chloride.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled chloride transporter. Functions as antiport system and exchanges two chloride ions for 1 proton. Probably acts as an electrical shunt for an outwardly-directed proton pump that is linked to amino acid decarboxylation, as part of the extreme acid resistance (XAR) response
Gene Name:
clcA
Uniprot ID:
B1XD25
Molecular weight:
50348
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled chloride transporter. Functions as antiport system and exchanges two chloride ions for 1 proton. Probably acts as an electrical shunt for an outwardly-directed proton pump that is linked to amino acid decarboxylation, as part of the extreme acid resistance (XAR) response
Gene Name:
clcA
Uniprot ID:
C4ZRP8
Molecular weight:
50348
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled chloride transporter. Functions as antiport system and exchanges two chloride ions for 1 proton. Probably acts as an electrical shunt for an outwardly-directed proton pump that is linked to amino acid decarboxylation, as part of the extreme acid resistance (XAR) response
Gene Name:
clcA
Uniprot ID:
P37019
Molecular weight:
50348
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Probably acts as an electrical shunt for an outwardly- directed proton pump that is linked to amino acid decarboxylation, as part of the extreme acid resistance (XAR) response
Gene Name:
clcB
Uniprot ID:
P76175
Molecular weight:
44153
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368