Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:58:38 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:12 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB03345
Identification
Name:alpha-D-Glucose
Description:Alpha-D-Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. Alpha-D-Glucose is an intermediate in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway where it is converted to beta-D-glucose via galactose-1-epimerase (mutarotase) (EC:5.1.3.3). It is also involved in several other metabolic pathways: fructose and mannose metabolism, galactose metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • α-glucose
  • 6-(Hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2,3,4,5-tetraol
  • A-D-Glucopyranose
  • A-D-Glucose
  • a-delta-Glucopyranose
  • a-delta-Glucose
  • A-Dextrose
  • A-Glucose
  • a-δ-Glucopyranose
  • a-δ-Glucose
  • Alpha-D-Glucopyranose
  • Alpha-D-Glucose
  • Alpha-delta-Glucopyranose
  • Alpha-delta-Glucose
  • Alpha-Dextrose
  • Alpha-Glucose
  • D-glucose
  • Glucose
  • Hexopyranose
  • α-D-Glucopyranose
  • α-D-Glucose
  • α-Dextrose
  • α-Glucose
  • α-δ-Glucopyranose
  • α-δ-Glucose
Chemical Formula:C6H12O6
Weight:Average: 180.1559
Monoisotopic: 180.063388116
InChI Key:WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-DVKNGEFBSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
CAS number:492-62-6
IUPAC Name:(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional IUPAC Name:α-glucose
SMILES:OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:146 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:500 mg/mL at 20 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism IIPW000887 Pw000887Pw000887 greyscalePw000887 simple
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism IIIPW000895 Pw000895Pw000895 greyscalePw000895 simple
Galactose metabolismPW000821 Pw000821Pw000821 greyscalePw000821 simple
Secondary metabolites: Trehalose Biosynthesis and MetabolismPW000968 Pw000968Pw000968 greyscalePw000968 simple
Starch and sucrose metabolismPW000941 Pw000941Pw000941 greyscalePw000941 simple
galactose degradation/Leloir PathwayPW000884 Pw000884Pw000884 greyscalePw000884 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9100000000-53278ff57ca00e1b5d1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0079-9000000000-c4182c64988208ac78b0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Dalmau SR, Freitas CS: Sugar inhibition of the lectin jacalin: comparison of three assays. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22(5):601-10. Pubmed: 2620170
  • Georgiou S, Pasmatzi E, Monastirli A, Sakkis T, Alachioti S, Tsambaos D: Age-related alterations in the carbohydrate residue composition of the cell surface in the unexposed normal human epidermis. Gerontology. 2005 May-Jun;51(3):155-60. Pubmed: 15832040
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Onyshchenko AM, Korobkova KS, Kovalenko NK, Kasumova SO, Skrypal' IH: [The role of the carbohydrate composition of the glycocalyx in some species of lactobacilli in the manifestation of their adhesive properties] Mikrobiol Z. 1999 Nov-Dec;61(6):22-8. Pubmed: 10733280
  • Skrypal' IH, Tokovenko IP, Malynovs'ka LP: [Carbohydrate receptors for Mycoplasma fermentans adhesion on human epithelial tissues] Mikrobiol Z. 1995 Jul-Aug;57(4):17-22. Pubmed: 8548067
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference:Simmons, Blake A.; Volponi, Joanne V.; Ingersoll, David; Walker, Andrew. Conversion of sucrose to b-D-glucose using three-stage immobilized enzyme process. U.S. (2007), 12pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17925
HMDB IDHMDB03345
Pubchem Compound ID79025
Kegg IDC00267
ChemSpider ID71358
Wikipedia IDNot Available
BioCyc IDALPHA-GLUCOSE
EcoCyc IDALPHA-GLUCOSE
Ligand ExpoGLC

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in beta-galactosidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D- galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
Gene Name:
lacZ
Uniprot ID:
P00722
Molecular weight:
116482
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides.
General function:
Involved in xylose isomerase activity
Specific function:
D-xylose = D-xylulose
Gene Name:
xylA
Uniprot ID:
P00944
Molecular weight:
49742
Reactions
D-xylose = D-xylulose.
General function:
Involved in beta-galactosidase activity
Specific function:
The wild-type enzyme is an ineffective lactase. Two classes of point mutations dramatically improve activity of the enzyme
Gene Name:
ebgA
Uniprot ID:
P06864
Molecular weight:
117878
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides.
General function:
Involved in glucokinase activity
Specific function:
Not highly important in E.coli as glucose is transported into the cell by the PTS system already as glucose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
glk
Uniprot ID:
P0A6V8
Molecular weight:
34723
Reactions
ATP + D-glucose = ADP + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in aldose 1-epimerase activity
Specific function:
Mutarotase converts alpha-aldose to the beta-anomer. It is active on D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, maltose and lactose
Gene Name:
galM
Uniprot ID:
P0A9C3
Molecular weight:
38190
Reactions
Alpha-D-glucose = beta-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Provides the cells with the ability to utilize trehalose at high osmolarity by splitting it into glucose molecules that can subsequently be taken up by the phosphotransferase-mediated uptake system
Gene Name:
treA
Uniprot ID:
P13482
Molecular weight:
63636
Reactions
Alpha,alpha-trehalose + H(2)O = 2 D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
MalX encodes a phosphotransferase system enzyme II that can recognize glucose and maltose as substrates even though these sugars may not represent the natural substrates of the system
Gene Name:
malX
Uniprot ID:
P19642
Molecular weight:
56627
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Absolutely required for the growth of E.coli in a high- phosphate medium containing G-1-P as the sole carbon source
Gene Name:
agp
Uniprot ID:
P19926
Molecular weight:
45683
Reactions
Alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate + H(2)O = D-glucose + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May play a role in regulating the intracellular level of maltotriose. Cleaves glucose from the reducing end of maltotriose and longer maltodextrins with a chain length of up to 7 glucose units
Gene Name:
malZ
Uniprot ID:
P21517
Molecular weight:
69172
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Exhibits hydrolysis activity against alpha-glucosyl fluoride, although natural substrates, such as alpha-glucobioses are scarcely hydrolyzed
Gene Name:
yihQ
Uniprot ID:
P32138
Molecular weight:
77274
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues with release of alpha-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D- glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose
Gene Name:
bglX
Uniprot ID:
P33363
Molecular weight:
83459
Reactions
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes trehalose to glucose. Could be involved, in cells returning to low osmolarity conditions, in the utilization of the accumulated cytoplasmic trehalose, which was synthesized in response to high osmolarity
Gene Name:
treF
Uniprot ID:
P62601
Molecular weight:
63696
Reactions
Alpha,alpha-trehalose + H(2)O = 2 D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in sugar:hydrogen symporter activity
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in glucose transport
Gene Name:
crr
Uniprot ID:
P69783
Molecular weight:
18251
Reactions
Protein EIIA N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine + protein EIIB = protein EIIA + protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine.
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in glucose transport. This enzyme is also a chemoreceptor monitoring the environment for changes in sugar concentration
Gene Name:
ptsG
Uniprot ID:
P69786
Molecular weight:
50676
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ebgC
Uniprot ID:
P0AC73
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
carbohydrate metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
lacZ
Uniprot ID:
G0ZKW2
Molecular weight:
116482
Reactions
=

Transporters

General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
MalX encodes a phosphotransferase system enzyme II that can recognize glucose and maltose as substrates even though these sugars may not represent the natural substrates of the system
Gene Name:
malX
Uniprot ID:
P19642
Molecular weight:
56627
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity
Specific function:
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active -transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. This system is involved in glucose transport. This enzyme is also a chemoreceptor monitoring the environment for changes in sugar concentration
Gene Name:
ptsG
Uniprot ID:
P69786
Molecular weight:
50676
Reactions
Protein EIIB N(pi)-phospho-L-histidine/cysteine + sugar = protein EIIB + sugar phosphate.
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Involved in the efflux of sugars. The physiological role may be the detoxification of non-metabolizable sugar analogs. Can transport IPTG, lactose and glucose. Has broad substrate specificity, with preferences for glucosides or galactosides with alkyl or aryl substituents
Gene Name:
setA
Uniprot ID:
P31675
Molecular weight:
42713
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Involved in the efflux of sugars. The physiological role may be the detoxification of non-metabolizable sugar analogs
Gene Name:
setC
Uniprot ID:
P31436
Molecular weight:
43493