Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:58:18 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:12 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB03276
Identification
Name:Hydrogen sulfide
Description:Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic and flammable gas. Because it is heavier than air it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Although very pungent at first, it quickly deadens the sense of smell, so potential victims may be unaware of its presence until it is too late. H2S arises from virtually anywhere where elemental sulfur comes into contact with organic material, especially at high temperatures. Hydrogen sulfide is a covalent hydride chemically related to water (H2O) since oxygen and sulfur occur in the same periodic table group. It often results when bacteria break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps, and sewers (alongside the process of anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters. It is also important to note that Hydrogen sulfide is a central participant in the sulfur cycle, the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur on earth. As mentioned above, sulfur-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria derive energy from oxidizing hydrogen or organic molecules in the absence of oxygen by reducing sulfur or sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. Other bacteria liberate hydrogen sulfide from sulfur-containing amino acids. Several groups of bacteria can use hydrogen sulfide as fuel, oxidizing it to elemental sulfur or to sulfate by using oxygen or nitrate as oxidant. The purple sulfur bacteria and the green sulfur bacteria use hydrogen sulfide as electron donor in photosynthesis, thereby producing elemental sulfur. (In fact, this mode of photosynthesis is older than the mode of cyanobacteria, algae and plants which uses water as electron donor and liberates oxygen).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Acide sulfhydrique
  • Acide sulphhydrique
  • Dihydrogen disulfide
  • Dihydrogen disulphide
  • Dihydrogen monosulfide
  • Dihydrogen monosulphide
  • Dihydrogen sulfide
  • Dihydrogen sulphide
  • H2S
  • H2S
  • Hepatate
  • Hepatic acid
  • Hepatic gas
  • Hydrogen monosulfide
  • Hydrogen monosulphide
  • Hydrogen sulfide
  • Hydrogen sulphide
  • Hydrogen-sulfide
  • Hydrogen-sulphide
  • Hydrogene sulfure
  • Hydrogene sulphure
  • Hydrosulfate
  • Hydrosulfurate
  • Hydrosulfuric acid
  • Hydrosulphate
  • Hydrosulphurate
  • Hydrosulphuric acid
  • Idrogeno solforato
  • Schwefelwasserstoff
  • Sewer gas
  • Siarkowodor
  • Sour gas
  • Stink dAMP
  • Sulfide
  • Sulfur hydride
  • Sulfur hydroxide
  • Sulfureted hydrogen
  • Sulfuretted hydrogen
  • Sulphide
  • Sulphur hydride
  • Sulphur hydroxide
  • Sulphureted hydrogen
  • Sulphuretted hydrogen
  • Zwavelwaterstof
Chemical Formula:H2S
Weight:Average: 34.081
Monoisotopic: 33.987720754
InChI Key:RWSOTUBLDIXVET-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/H2S/h1H2
CAS number:7783-06-4
IUPAC Name:hydrogen sulfide
Traditional IUPAC Name:hydrogen sulfide
SMILES:S
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as other non-metal sulfides. These are inorganic compounds containing a sulfur atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of other non-metals.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Sub ClassOther non-metal organides
Direct ParentOther non-metal sulfides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Other non-metal sulfide
  • Inorganic sulfide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Liquid
Charge:-1
Melting point:-85.49 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:3.74 mg/mL at 21 oC [VENABLE,CS & FUWA,T (1922)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.037ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity7.36 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.45 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen sulfide <> Acetic acid + L-Cysteine + Hydrogen ion
5 Hydrogen ion + 3 NADPH + Sulfite <>3 Water + Hydrogen sulfide +3 NADP
L-Cysteine + Water > Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
D-Cysteine + Water > Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
L-Cysteine + Water <> Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
Hydrogen sulfide + 3 NADP + 3 Water <> Sulfite +3 NADPH +3 Hydrogen ion
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen sulfide <> L-Cysteine + Acetic acid
O-Succinyl-L-homoserine + Hydrogen sulfide <> L-Homocysteine + Succinic acid
D-Cysteine + Water <> Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
Hydrogen ion + 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid > Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen sulfide
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen sulfide <> Hydrogen ion + L-Cysteine + Acetic acid
D-Cysteine + Water <> Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonia + Hydrogen ion
L-Cysteine + Water > Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen sulfide + Hydrogen ion
Water + NADP + Hydrogen sulfide < Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Sulfite
Dethiobiotin + Hydrogen sulfide + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine > Biotin +2 L-Methionine +2 5'-Deoxyadenosine
Hydrogen sulfide + 3 NADP + 3 Water > Sulfite +3 NADPH
Hydrogen sulfide + 3 NADP + 3 Water > Sulfite +3 NADPH
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen sulfide > L-Cysteine + Acetic acid
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen sulfide > L-Cysteine + Acetic acid
D-Cysteine + Water > Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
Protein N(6)-(octanoyl)lysine + 2 Hydrogen sulfide + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine > protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine +2 L-Methionine +2 5'-Deoxyadenosine
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen sulfide > Hydrogen ion + Acetic acid + L-Cysteine
Hydrogen sulfide + O-Acetylserine <> L-Cysteine + Acetic acid + Hydrogen ion
L-Cysteine > Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen sulfide + 2-Aminoacrylic acid
3 NADPH + 5 Hydrogen ion + Sulfite + 3 NADPH + Sulfite > Hydrogen sulfide +3 Water +3 NADP

SMPDB Pathways:
Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis IPW002066 Pw002066Pw002066 greyscalePw002066 simple
L-cysteine degradationPW002110 Pw002110Pw002110 greyscalePw002110 simple
Secondary Metabolites: cysteine biosynthesis from serinePW000977 Pw000977Pw000977 greyscalePw000977 simple
Sulfur metabolismPW000922 Pw000922Pw000922 greyscalePw000922 simple
cysteine biosynthesisPW000800 Pw000800Pw000800 greyscalePw000800 simple
sulfur metabolism (butanesulfonate)PW000923 Pw000923Pw000923 greyscalePw000923 simple
sulfur metabolism (ethanesulfonate)PW000925 Pw000925Pw000925 greyscalePw000925 simple
sulfur metabolism (isethionate)PW000926 Pw000926Pw000926 greyscalePw000926 simple
sulfur metabolism (methanesulfonate)PW000927 Pw000927Pw000927 greyscalePw000927 simple
sulfur metabolism (propanesulfonate)PW000924 Pw000924Pw000924 greyscalePw000924 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-03di-1900000000-447434090a2b915c1731View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-3a89a2549173c5c1687fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-447434090a2b915c1731View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d63abb89fd699a31707View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d63abb89fd699a31707View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d63abb89fd699a31707View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d63abb89fd699a31707View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d63abb89fd699a31707View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2d63abb89fd699a31707View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-5373be1d46feb66d09a8View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Boehning D, Snyder SH: Novel neural modulators. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2003;26:105-31. Pubmed: 14527267
  • Chen X, Jhee KH, Kruger WD: Production of the neuromodulator H2S by cystathionine beta-synthase via the condensation of cysteine and homocysteine. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 10;279(50):52082-6. Epub 2004 Nov 1. Pubmed: 15520012
  • Claesson R, Granlund-Edstedt M, Persson S, Carlsson J: Activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of sulfide. Infect Immun. 1989 Sep;57(9):2776-81. Pubmed: 2547720
  • Donham KJ, Zejda JE: Lung dysfunction in animal confinement workers--chairman's report to the Scientific Committee of the Third International Symposium: issues in health, safety and agriculture, held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, May 10-15, 1992. Pol J Occup Med Environ Health. 1992;5(3):277-9. Pubmed: 1362681
  • Jiang T, Suarez FL, Levitt MD, Nelson SE, Ziegler EE: Gas production by feces of infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001 May;32(5):534-41. Pubmed: 11429513
  • Jorgensen J, Mortensen PB: Hydrogen sulfide and colonic epithelial metabolism: implications for ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2001 Aug;46(8):1722-32. Pubmed: 11508674
  • Kage S, Ito S, Kishida T, Kudo K, Ikeda N: A fatal case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a geothermal power plant. J Forensic Sci. 1998 Jul;43(4):908-10. Pubmed: 9670519
  • Kage S, Kashimura S, Ikeda H, Kudo K, Ikeda N: Fatal and nonfatal poisoning by hydrogen sulfide at an industrial waste site. J Forensic Sci. 2002 May;47(3):652-5. Pubmed: 12051356
  • Kage S, Takekawa K, Kurosaki K, Imamura T, Kudo K: The usefulness of thiosulfate as an indicator of hydrogen sulfide poisoning: three cases. Int J Legal Med. 1997;110(4):220-2. Pubmed: 9274948
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kaplan WD, Piez CW, Gelman RS, Laffin SM, Rosenbaum EM, Jennings CA, McCormick CA, Harris JR, Henderson IC, Atkins HL: Clinical comparison of two radiocolloids for internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy. J Nucl Med. 1985 Dec;26(12):1382-5. Pubmed: 4067640
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kresimon J, Gruter UM, Hirner AV: HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS coupling for identification of metal(loid) species in human urine after fish consumption. Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2001 Nov;371(5):586-90. Pubmed: 11767883
  • Livermore A, Hummel T, Kobal G: Chemosensory event-related potentials in the investigation of interactions between the olfactory and the somatosensory (trigeminal) systems. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1992 Sep;83(3):201-10. Pubmed: 1381671
  • Naidong W, Shou WZ, Addison T, Maleki S, Jiang X: Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalysis using normal-phase columns with aqueous/organic mobile phases - a novel approach of eliminating evaporation and reconstitution steps in 96-well SPE. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16(20):1965-75. Pubmed: 12362389
  • Quirynen M, Zhao H, Avontroodt P, Soers C, Pauwels M, Coucke W, van Steenberghe D: A salivary incubation test for evaluation of oral malodor: a pilot study. J Periodontol. 2003 Jul;74(7):937-44. Pubmed: 12931755
  • Reid JS, Beeley JA, MacDonald DG: Investigations into black extrinsic tooth stain. J Dent Res. 1977 Aug;56(8):895-9. Pubmed: 270488
  • Warren YA, Citron DM, Merriam CV, Goldstein EJ: Biochemical differentiation and comparison of Desulfovibrio species and other phenotypically similar genera. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):4041-5. Pubmed: 16081948
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Xu C, Li CY, Kong AN: Induction of phase I, II and III drug metabolism/transport by xenobiotics. Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Mar;28(3):249-68. Pubmed: 15832810
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16136
HMDB IDHMDB03276
Pubchem Compound ID402
Kegg IDC00283
ChemSpider ID391
WikipediaHydrogen sulfide
BioCyc IDHS
EcoCyc IDHS
Ligand ExpoS

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
O(4)-succinyl-L-homoserine + L-cysteine = L- cystathionine + succinate
Gene Name:
metB
Uniprot ID:
P00935
Molecular weight:
41550
Reactions
O(4)-succinyl-L-homoserine + L-cysteine = L-cystathionine + succinate.
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
L-cystathionine + H(2)O = L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate
Gene Name:
metC
Uniprot ID:
P06721
Molecular weight:
43212
Reactions
L-cystathionine + H(2)O = L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in lyase activity
Specific function:
L-tryptophan + H(2)O = indole + pyruvate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
tnaA
Uniprot ID:
P0A853
Molecular weight:
52773
Reactions
L-tryptophan + H(2)O = indole + pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific function:
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate
Gene Name:
cysK
Uniprot ID:
P0ABK5
Molecular weight:
34489
Reactions
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate.
3-chloro-L-alanine + thioglycolate = S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine + chloride.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of dethiobiotin (DTB) to biotin by the insertion of a sulfur atom into dethiobiotin via a radical- based mechanism
Gene Name:
bioB
Uniprot ID:
P12996
Molecular weight:
38648
Reactions
Dethiobiotin + sulfur + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine = biotin + 2 L-methionine + 2 5'-deoxyadenosine.
General function:
Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific function:
Two cysteine synthase enzymes are found. Both catalyze the same reaction. Cysteine synthase B can also use thiosulfate in place of sulfide to give cysteine thiosulfonate as a product
Gene Name:
cysM
Uniprot ID:
P16703
Molecular weight:
32664
Reactions
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate.
General function:
Involved in sulfite reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Component of the sulfite reductase complex that catalyzes the 6-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. This is one of several activities required for the biosynthesis of L- cysteine from sulfate
Gene Name:
cysI
Uniprot ID:
P17846
Molecular weight:
63998
Reactions
H(2)S + 3 NADP(+) + 3 H(2)O = sulfite + 3 NADPH.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Acts as a beta-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose regulon
Gene Name:
malY
Uniprot ID:
P23256
Molecular weight:
43641
Reactions
L-cystathionine + H(2)O = L-homocysteine + NH(3) + pyruvate.
General function:
Involved in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity
Specific function:
Transfers a sulfur ion to cyanide or to other thiol compounds. Also has weak rhodanese activity (130-fold lower). Its participation in detoxification of cyanide may be small. May be involved in the enhancement of serine sensitivity
Gene Name:
sseA
Uniprot ID:
P31142
Molecular weight:
30812
Reactions
3-mercaptopyruvate + cyanide = pyruvate + thiocyanate.
General function:
Involved in sulfite reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Component of the sulfite reductase complex that catalyzes the 6-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. This is one of several activities required for the biosynthesis of L- cysteine from sulfate. The flavoprotein component catalyzes the electron flow from NADPH -> FAD -> FMN to the hemoprotein component
Gene Name:
cysJ
Uniprot ID:
P38038
Molecular weight:
66269
Reactions
H(2)S + 3 NADP(+) + 3 H(2)O = sulfite + 3 NADPH.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the radical-mediated insertion of two sulfur atoms into the C-6 and C-8 positions of the octanoyl moiety bound to the lipoyl domains of lipoate-dependent enzymes, thereby converting the octanoylated domains into lipoylated derivatives. Free octanoate is not a substrate for lipA
Gene Name:
lipA
Uniprot ID:
P60716
Molecular weight:
36071
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(octanoyl)lysine + 2 sulfur + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine = protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + 2 L-methionine + 2 5'-deoxyadenosine.
General function:
Involved in D-cysteine desulfhydrase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the alpha,beta-elimination reaction of D- cysteine and of several D-cysteine derivatives. It could be a defense mechanism against D-cysteine. Can also catalyze the degradation of 3-chloro-D-alanine
Gene Name:
dcyD
Uniprot ID:
P76316
Molecular weight:
35153
Reactions
D-cysteine + H(2)O = H(2)S + NH(3) + pyruvate.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368
General function:
respiratory electron transport chain
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ydhU
Uniprot ID:
P77409
Molecular weight:
29582
Reactions
=