Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:56:44 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:12 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB02434
Identification
Name:Hydroquinone
Description:Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol, is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. Its chemical structure has two hydroxyl groups bonded to a benzene ring in a para position. Hydroquinone is a white granular solid at room temperature and pressure. The hydroxyl groups of hydroquinone are quite weakly acidic. Hydroquinone can lose an H+ from one of the hydroxyls to form a monophenolate ion or lose an H+ from both to form a diphenolate ion. Hydroquinone has a variety of uses principally associated with its action as a reducing agent which is soluble in water. The presence of hydroquinone in E. coli arises from the catabolism of tyrosine and other similar aromatic substrates.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 1,4-Benzenediol
  • 1,4-Dihydroxy-benzeen
  • 1,4-Dihydroxy-benzol
  • 1,4-Dihydroxybenzen
  • 1,4-Diidrobenzene
  • 4-Hydroxyphenol
  • A-Hydroquinone
  • Alpha-Hydroquinone
  • B-Quinol
  • Benzene-1,4-diol
  • Benzohydroquinone
  • Benzoquinol
  • Beta-Quinol
  • Dihydroquinone
  • Dihydroxybenzene
  • Hydrochinon
  • Hydrochinone
  • Hydroquinol
  • Hydroquinole
  • Hydroquinone
  • Hydroquinone for synthesis
  • Hydroquinone gr
  • Hydroquinoue
  • Idrochinone
  • Melanex
  • P-Benzenediol
  • P-Dihydroxybenzene
  • P-Dioxobenzene
  • P-Dioxybenzene
  • P-Hydroquinone
  • P-Hydroxybenzene
  • P-Hydroxyphenol
  • Phiaquin
  • Quinol
  • Solaquin forte
  • α-Hydroquinone
  • β-Quinol
Chemical Formula:C6H6O2
Weight:Average: 110.1106
Monoisotopic: 110.036779436
InChI Key:QIGBRXMKCJKVMJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C6H6O2/c7-5-1-2-6(8)4-3-5/h1-4,7-8H
CAS number:123-31-9
IUPAC Name:benzene-1,4-diol
Traditional IUPAC Name:α-hydroquinone
SMILES:OC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroquinones. These are compounds containing a hydroquinone moiety, which consists of a benzene ring with a hydroxyl groups at positions 1 and 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassBenzenediols
Direct ParentHydroquinones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroquinone
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:172.3 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:72.0 mg/mL at 25 oC [GRANGER,FS & NELSON,JM (1921)]PhysProp
LogP:0.59 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility95.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.71ALOGPS
logP1.37ChemAxon
logS-0.06ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity30.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.75 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:
L-alanine metabolismPW000788 Pw000788Pw000788 greyscalePw000788 simple
Oxidative phosphorylationPW000919 Pw000919Pw000919 greyscalePw000919 simple
Pyrimidine metabolismPW000942 Pw000942Pw000942 greyscalePw000942 simple
TCA cyclePW000779 Pw000779Pw000779 greyscalePw000779 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-0)PW002023 Pw002023Pw002023 greyscalePw002023 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-10)PW001010 Pw001010Pw001010 greyscalePw001010 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-2)PW001002 Pw001002Pw001002 greyscalePw001002 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-3)PW001003 Pw001003Pw001003 greyscalePw001003 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-4)PW001004 Pw001004Pw001004 greyscalePw001004 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-5)PW001005 Pw001005Pw001005 greyscalePw001005 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-6)PW001006 Pw001006Pw001006 greyscalePw001006 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-7)PW001007 Pw001007Pw001007 greyscalePw001007 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-8)PW001008 Pw001008Pw001008 greyscalePw001008 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-9)PW001009 Pw001009Pw001009 greyscalePw001009 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0f79-2490000000-6b4fec222a3499d93790View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-03di-5900000000-954dc96d8e3eb85b8324View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03di-9800000000-c90fd4986fea9691ecbfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-03e9-9300000000-f8b11742557329691e8aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0f79-2490000000-6b4fec222a3499d93790View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0f79-2690000000-7306adcc7121a11d67ccView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00e9-8950000000-512c0cf5ddc0b120ec8eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9600000000-e670ba090cb27367db12View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01p6-9000000000-5fc32c7688c1612df1e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-c5853ce8ef225ea5c353View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-03di-9800000000-c90fd4986fea9691ecbfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-5635f0157cd37deb1121View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-03di-2900000000-05be113033a709130eedView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-8d8328e4f7cd2ebaa27dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-9290fcb93f170fc3143fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01si-9200000000-9f707b9d0c4ad0b73b30View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d3aae38632ac4c40fd4fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-74f15490ba4f49cf8c18View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9800000000-1cb01248e88fce387578View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-9500000000-1fa8477944a662535e76View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Barber ED, Hill T, Schum DB: The percutaneous absorption of hydroquinone (HQ) through rat and human skin in vitro. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Oct;80(1-3):167-72. Pubmed: 7482585
  • Boyle J, Kennedy CT: Hydroquinone concentrations in skin lightening creams. Br J Dermatol. 1986 Apr;114(4):501-4. Pubmed: 3964548
  • Bucks DA, McMaster JR, Guy RH, Maibach HI: Percutaneous absorption of hydroquinone in humans: effect of 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one (azone) and the 2-ethylhexyl ester of 4-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid (Escalol 507). J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;24(3):279-89. Pubmed: 3260963
  • Carbonnelle P, Lison D, Leroy JY, Lauwerys R: Effect of the benzene metabolite, hydroquinone, on interleukin-1 secretion by human monocytes in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;132(2):220-6. Pubmed: 7540334
  • Gaskell M, McLuckie KI, Farmer PB: Comparison of the repair of DNA damage induced by the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone: a role for hydroquinone in benzene genotoxicity. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Mar;26(3):673-80. Epub 2004 Dec 23. Pubmed: 15618234
  • Inayat-Hussain SH, McGuinness SM, Johansson R, Lundstrom J, Ross D: Caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms in apoptosis induced by hydroquinone and catechol metabolites of remoxipride in HL-60 cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2000 Aug 15;128(1):51-63. Pubmed: 10996300
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keh ES, Hayakawa I, Takahashi H, Watanabe A, Iwasaki Y, Akiyoshi K, Nakabayashi N: Improving a self-curing dental resin by eliminating oxygen, hydroquinone and water from its curing process. Dent Mater J. 2002 Dec;21(4):373-82. Pubmed: 12608426
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kooyers TJ, Westerhof W: [Toxicological aspects and health risks associated with hydroquinone in skin bleaching formula] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004 Apr 17;148(16):768-71. Pubmed: 15129564
  • Li X, Zhuang Z, Liu J, Huang H, Wei Q, Yang X: [Protein changes in human embryonic lung fibroblasts after hydroquinone stimulation using proteomic technique] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004 Nov;33(6):654-7. Pubmed: 15727168
  • McDonald TA, Holland NT, Skibola C, Duramad P, Smith MT: Hypothesis: phenol and hydroquinone derived mainly from diet and gastrointestinal flora activity are causal factors in leukemia. Leukemia. 2001 Jan;15(1):10-20. Pubmed: 11243376
  • Nilsson LB: High sensitivity determination of the remoxipride hydroquinone metabolite NCQ-344 in plasma by coupled column reversed-phase liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Biomed Chromatogr. 1998 Mar-Apr;12(2):65-8. Pubmed: 9568272
  • Oliveira NL, Kalf GF: Induced differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells to monocyte/macrophages is inhibited by hydroquinone, a hematotoxic metabolite of benzene. Blood. 1992 Feb 1;79(3):627-33. Pubmed: 1732008
  • Subrahmanyam VV, Kolachana P, Smith MT: Hydroxylation of phenol to hydroquinone catalyzed by a human myeloperoxidase-superoxide complex: possible implications in benzene-induced myelotoxicity. Free Radic Res Commun. 1991;15(5):285-96. Pubmed: 1666626
  • Wester RC, Melendres J, Hui X, Cox R, Serranzana S, Zhai H, Quan D, Maibach HI: Human in vivo and in vitro hydroquinone topical bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Jun 26;54(4):301-17. Pubmed: 9638901
Synthesis Reference:Miyanohara, Isao; Yanagihara, Tadahisa. Hydroquinone. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1977), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17594
HMDB IDHMDB02434
Pubchem Compound ID785
Kegg IDC15603
ChemSpider ID764
WikipediaHydroquinone
BioCyc IDHYDROQUINONE
EcoCyc IDHYDROQUINONE
Ligand ExpoHQE

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; the fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and the succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth
Gene Name:
frdA
Uniprot ID:
P00363
Molecular weight:
65971
Reactions
Succinate + acceptor = fumarate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; the fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and the succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth
Gene Name:
sdhB
Uniprot ID:
P07014
Molecular weight:
26770
Reactions
Succinate + acceptor = fumarate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon
Gene Name:
putA
Uniprot ID:
P09546
Molecular weight:
143814
Reactions
L-proline + acceptor = (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 H(2)O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Oxidative deamination of D-amino acids
Gene Name:
dadA
Uniprot ID:
P0A6J5
Molecular weight:
47607
Reactions
A D-amino acid + H(2)O + acceptor = a 2-oxo acid + NH(3) + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
(S)-dihydroorotate + a quinone = orotate + a quinol
Gene Name:
pyrD
Uniprot ID:
P0A7E1
Molecular weight:
36774
Reactions
(S)-dihydroorotate + a quinone = orotate + a quinol.
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Seems to be involved in the anchoring of the catalytic components of the fumarate reductase complex to the cytoplasmic membrane
Gene Name:
frdC
Uniprot ID:
P0A8Q0
Molecular weight:
15015
General function:
Involved in fumarate metabolic process
Specific function:
Seems to be involved in the anchoring of the catalytic components of the fumarate reductase complex to the cytoplasmic membrane
Gene Name:
frdD
Uniprot ID:
P0A8Q3
Molecular weight:
13107
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; the fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and the succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth
Gene Name:
sdhA
Uniprot ID:
P0AC41
Molecular weight:
64421
Reactions
Succinate + acceptor = fumarate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)
Gene Name:
sdhD
Uniprot ID:
P0AC44
Molecular weight:
12867
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; the fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and the succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth
Gene Name:
frdB
Uniprot ID:
P0AC47
Molecular weight:
27123
Reactions
Succinate + acceptor = fumarate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoA
Uniprot ID:
P0AFC3
Molecular weight:
16457
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoB
Uniprot ID:
P0AFC7
Molecular weight:
25056
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoE
Uniprot ID:
P0AFD1
Molecular weight:
18590
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient. This subunit may bind ubiquinone
Gene Name:
nuoH
Uniprot ID:
P0AFD4
Molecular weight:
36219
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoI
Uniprot ID:
P0AFD6
Molecular weight:
20538
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoJ
Uniprot ID:
P0AFE0
Molecular weight:
19874
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
There are 2 NADH dehydrogenases in E.coli, however only this complex is able to use dNADH (reduced nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide, deamino-NADH) and dNADH-DB (dimethoxy- 5-methyl-6-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone) as substrates
Gene Name:
nuoK
Uniprot ID:
P0AFE4
Molecular weight:
10845
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoM
Uniprot ID:
P0AFE8
Molecular weight:
56524
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoN
Uniprot ID:
P0AFF0
Molecular weight:
52044
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Can hydrolyze salicin and arbutin
Gene Name:
bglB
Uniprot ID:
P11988
Molecular weight:
53161
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes a wide variety of P-beta-glucosides including cellobiose-6P, salicin-6P, arbutin-6P, gentiobiose-6P, methyl- beta-glucoside-6P and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside-6P. Is also able to hydrolyze phospho-N,N'-diacetylchitobiose
Gene Name:
chbF
Uniprot ID:
P17411
Molecular weight:
50512
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Can hydrolyze salicin, cellobiose, and probably arbutin
Gene Name:
ascB
Uniprot ID:
P24240
Molecular weight:
53935
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoF
Uniprot ID:
P31979
Molecular weight:
49292
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoC
Uniprot ID:
P33599
Molecular weight:
68236
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoG
Uniprot ID:
P33602
Molecular weight:
100298
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoL
Uniprot ID:
P33607
Molecular weight:
66438
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in malate dehydrogenase (quinone) activity
Specific function:
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
Gene Name:
mqo
Uniprot ID:
P33940
Molecular weight:
60229
Reactions
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone.
General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)
Gene Name:
sdhC
Uniprot ID:
P69054
Molecular weight:
14299
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
bglA
Uniprot ID:
Q46829
Molecular weight:
55361
Reactions
6-phospho-beta-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-D-glucose + H(2)O = D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
aes
Uniprot ID:
P23872
Molecular weight:
Not Available