Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 13:44:18 -0600
Update Date2015-09-17 16:24:05 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB01060
Identification
Name:Ubiquinol-8
Description:Ubiquinol-8 is a member of the chemical class known as Polyprenylbenzoquinols. They are reduced forms of polyprenylbenzoquinines (ubiquinones). These are compounds containing a polyisoprene chain attached to a quinol at the second ring position. Ubiquiol-1 has 8 isoprene units. Normally in E. coli the active form of Ubiquinol has 8 isoprene units (Ubiquinol-8) and in humans it normally has 10. Coenzyme Q(n) exists in three redox states, fully oxidized (ubiquinone), partially reduced (semiquinones or ubisemiquinones), and fully reduced (ubiquinols). The redox functions of ubiquinol in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced) and the ubiquinone (oxidized) form. Ubiquionols are important in cellular respiration. They are fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes; they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. The transfer of electrons through ETC results in the pumping of H+ across the membrane creating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthase (located on the membrane) to generate ATP.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(2E,6E,10E,14E,18E,22E,26E)-3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31-octamethyldotriaconta-2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30-octaenylbenzene-1,4-diol
  • Dihydroubiquinone
  • Reduced coenzyme Q8
  • Reduced ubiquinone
  • Ubiquinol(30)
  • Ubiquinol(8)
Chemical Formula:C49H78O4
Weight:Average: 731.1412
Monoisotopic: 730.590010984
InChI Key:FLVUMORHBJZINO-SGHXUWJISA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C49H78O4/c1-36(2)20-13-21-37(3)22-14-23-38(4)24-15-25-39(5)26-16-27-40(6)28-17-29-41(7)30-18-31-42(8)32-19-33-43(9)34-35-45-44(10)46(50)48(52-11)49(53-12)47(45)51/h20,22,24,26,28,30,32,34,46-47,50-51H,13-19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,35H2,1-12H3/b37-22+,38-24+,39-26+,40-28+,41-30+,42-32+,43-34+
CAS number:Not Available
IUPAC Name:2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31-octamethyldotriaconta-2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30-octaen-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diol
Traditional IUPAC Name:2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31-octamethyldotriaconta-2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30-octaen-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diol
SMILES:COC1=C(OC)C(O)C(C\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CC\C=C(/C)CCC=C(C)C)=C(C)C1O
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Physical Properties
State:Not Available
Charge:0
Melting point:Not Available
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
LogP:6.855PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000345 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.66ALOGPS
logP12ChemAxon
logS-6.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.92 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count25ChemAxon
Refractivity240.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability93.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Membrane
Reactions:
2 Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen (gas) + Ubiquinone-8 > Ubiquinol-8 +2 Hydrogen ion
2 Hydrogen ion + Oxygen + Ubiquinol-8 > Water + Ubiquinone-8 +2 Hydrogen ion
2 Hydrogen ion + Nitrate + Ubiquinol-8 > Water + Nitrite + Ubiquinone-8 +2 Hydrogen ion
Ubiquinol-8 + Nitrate > Ubiquinone-8 + Water + Nitrite
Glycerol 3-phosphate + Ubiquinone-8 > Dihydroxyacetone phosphate + Ubiquinol-8
2 Hydrogen ion + Ubiquinone-8 + Formic acid > Ubiquinol-8 + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion
Ubiquinone-8 + D-Glucose + Water > Ubiquinol-8 + Gluconic acid + Hydrogen ion
4 Hydrogen ion + Oxygen + Ubiquinol-8 > Water + Ubiquinone-8 +4 Hydrogen ion
Ubiquinone-8 + Succinic acid > Fumaric acid + Ubiquinol-8
4 Hydrogen ion + NADH + Ubiquinone-8 > NAD + Ubiquinol-8 +3 Hydrogen ion
Glycolic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Glyoxylic acid + Ubiquinol-8
L-Lactic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Pyruvic acid + Ubiquinol-8
Ubiquinone-8 + periplasmic protein disulfide isomerase I (reduced) > Ubiquinol-8 + periplasmic protein disulfide isomerase I (oxidized)
3 Ubiquinol-8 + 2 Hydrogen ion + Nitrite >3 Ubiquinone-8 +2 Water + Ammonium
Water + Pyruvic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Acetic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ubiquinol-8
4,5-Dihydroorotic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Orotic acid + Ubiquinol-8
Hydrogen ion + NADH + Ubiquinone-8 > NAD + Ubiquinol-8
D-Lactic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Pyruvic acid + Ubiquinol-8
L-Malic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Oxalacetic acid + Ubiquinol-8
2-Octaprenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinol + S-Adenosylmethionine > S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Hydrogen ion + Ubiquinol-8
L-Aspartic acid + Ubiquinone-8 > Hydrogen ion + Iminoaspartic acid + Ubiquinol-8
Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ubiquinone-8 > NADP + Ubiquinol-8
2 Oxygen + Ubiquinol-8 >2 Hydrogen ion +2 Superoxide anion + Ubiquinone-8
Ubiquinol-8 + Acceptor <> Ubiquinone-1 + Reduced acceptor
Pyruvic acid + Ubiquinone-1 + Water <> Acetic acid + Ubiquinol-8 + Carbon dioxide

SMPDB Pathways:
Oxidative phosphorylationPW000919 Pw000919Pw000919 greyscalePw000919 simple
Secondary Metabolites: Ubiquinol biosynthesisPW000981 Pw000981Pw000981 greyscalePw000981 simple
Secondary Metabolites: Ubiquinol biosynthesis 2PW002036 Pw002036Pw002036 greyscalePw002036 simple
TCA cycle (ubiquinol-8)PW001008 Pw001008Pw001008 greyscalePw001008 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
  • ubiquinol-8 biosynthesis (prokaryotic) PWY-6708
Concentrations
Not Available
Spectra
Spectra:Not Available
References
References:
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Maneiro E, Lopez-Armada MJ, de Andres MC, Carames B, Martin MA, Bonilla A, Del Hoyo P, Galdo F, Arenas J, Blanco FJ: Effect of nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiratory activity of human articular chondrocytes. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 Mar;64(3):388-95. Pubmed: 15708893
  • Nohl H, Gille L, Staniek K: Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Mar 1;69(5):719-23. Epub 2005 Jan 20. Pubmed: 15710349
  • Pastore A, Giovamberardino GD, Bertini E, Tozzi G, Gaeta LM, Federici G, Piemonte F: Simultaneous determination of ubiquinol and ubiquinone in skeletal muscle of pediatric patients. Anal Biochem. 2005 Jul 15;342(2):352-5. Epub 2005 Mar 7. Pubmed: 15989930
Synthesis Reference:Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID17976
HMDB IDHMDB12299
Pubchem Compound ID1155
Kegg IDC00390
ChemSpider ID1123
Wikipedia IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-9956
EcoCyc IDCPD-9956

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Does not couple the redox reaction to proton translocation
Gene Name:
ndh
Uniprot ID:
P00393
Molecular weight:
47358
Reactions
NADH + acceptor = NAD(+) + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
Specific function:
First component of the membrane-bound D-lactate oxidase, which is believed to play an important role in the energization of the active transport of a variety of sugars and amino acids
Gene Name:
dld
Uniprot ID:
P06149
Molecular weight:
64612
Reactions
(R)-lactate + NAD(+) = pyruvate + NADH.
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Pyruvate + ferricytochrome b1 + H(2)O = acetate + CO(2) + ferrocytochrome b1
Gene Name:
poxB
Uniprot ID:
P07003
Molecular weight:
62011
Reactions
Pyruvate + ubiquinone + H(2)O = acetate + CO(2) + ubiquinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; the fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and the succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth
Gene Name:
sdhB
Uniprot ID:
P07014
Molecular weight:
26770
Reactions
Succinate + acceptor = fumarate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
The nitrate reductase enzyme complex allows E.coli to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The alpha chain is the actual site of nitrate reduction
Gene Name:
narG
Uniprot ID:
P09152
Molecular weight:
140489
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
(S)-dihydroorotate + a quinone = orotate + a quinol
Gene Name:
pyrD
Uniprot ID:
P0A7E1
Molecular weight:
36774
Reactions
(S)-dihydroorotate + a quinone = orotate + a quinol.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
Electron transfer protein; may also function as the membrane anchor for the glpAB dimer
Gene Name:
glpC
Uniprot ID:
P0A996
Molecular weight:
44108
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone. Uses fumarate or nitrate as electron acceptor
Gene Name:
glpA
Uniprot ID:
P0A9C0
Molecular weight:
58958
Reactions
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Formate dehydrogenase allows E.coli to use formate as major electron donor during anaerobic respiration, when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. The beta chain is an electron transfer unit containing 4 cysteine clusters involved in the formation of iron-sulfur centers. Electrons are transferred from the gamma chain to the molybdenum cofactor of the alpha subunit
Gene Name:
fdnH
Uniprot ID:
P0AAJ3
Molecular weight:
32239
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Allows to use formate as major electron donor during aerobic respiration. The beta chain is an electron transfer unit containing 4 cysteine clusters involved in the formation of iron- sulfur centers. Electrons are transferred from the gamma chain to the molybdenum cofactor of the alpha subunit
Gene Name:
fdoH
Uniprot ID:
P0AAJ5
Molecular weight:
33100
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Probable electron transfer protein for hydrogenase 3
Gene Name:
hycB
Uniprot ID:
P0AAK1
Molecular weight:
21873
General function:
Involved in nitrogen compound metabolic process
Specific function:
Plays a role in nitrite reduction
Gene Name:
nrfA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABK9
Molecular weight:
53703
Reactions
NH(3) + 2 H(2)O + 6 ferricytochrome c = nitrite + 6 ferrocytochrome c + 7 H(+).
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Two distinct, membrane-bound, FAD-containing enzymes are responsible for the catalysis of fumarate and succinate interconversion; the fumarate reductase is used in anaerobic growth, and the succinate dehydrogenase is used in aerobic growth
Gene Name:
sdhA
Uniprot ID:
P0AC41
Molecular weight:
64421
Reactions
Succinate + acceptor = fumarate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)
Gene Name:
sdhD
Uniprot ID:
P0AC44
Molecular weight:
12867
General function:
Involved in nickel cation binding
Specific function:
This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD1 is believed to have a role in hydrogen cycling during fermentative growth
Gene Name:
hyaB
Uniprot ID:
P0ACD8
Molecular weight:
66253
Reactions
H(2) + A = AH(2).
General function:
Involved in nickel cation binding
Specific function:
This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD2 is involved in hydrogen uptake
Gene Name:
hybC
Uniprot ID:
P0ACE0
Molecular weight:
62491
Reactions
H(2) + A = AH(2).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Can oxidize menadiol to menadione
Gene Name:
ygiN
Uniprot ID:
P0ADU2
Molecular weight:
11532
General function:
Involved in respiratory electron transport chain
Specific function:
Formate dehydrogenase allows E.coli to use formate as major electron donor during anaerobic respiration, when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. Subunit gamma is the cytochrome b556(FDN) component of the formate dehydrogenase
Gene Name:
fdnI
Uniprot ID:
P0AEK7
Molecular weight:
25368
General function:
Involved in respiratory electron transport chain
Specific function:
Allows to use formate as major electron donor during aerobic respiration. Subunit gamma is probably the cytochrome b556(FDO) component of the formate dehydrogenase
Gene Name:
fdoI
Uniprot ID:
P0AEL0
Molecular weight:
24606
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
glcD
Uniprot ID:
P0AEP9
Molecular weight:
53811
General function:
Involved in nitrate reductase activity
Specific function:
This is a second nitrate reductase enzyme which can substitute for the NRA enzyme and allows E.coli to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The gamma chain is a membrane-embedded heme-iron unit resembling cytochrome b, which transfers electrons from quinones to the beta subunit
Gene Name:
narV
Uniprot ID:
P0AF32
Molecular weight:
26018
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoA
Uniprot ID:
P0AFC3
Molecular weight:
16457
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoB
Uniprot ID:
P0AFC7
Molecular weight:
25056
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoE
Uniprot ID:
P0AFD1
Molecular weight:
18590
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient. This subunit may bind ubiquinone
Gene Name:
nuoH
Uniprot ID:
P0AFD4
Molecular weight:
36219
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoI
Uniprot ID:
P0AFD6
Molecular weight:
20538
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoJ
Uniprot ID:
P0AFE0
Molecular weight:
19874
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
There are 2 NADH dehydrogenases in E.coli, however only this complex is able to use dNADH (reduced nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide, deamino-NADH) and dNADH-DB (dimethoxy- 5-methyl-6-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone) as substrates
Gene Name:
nuoK
Uniprot ID:
P0AFE4
Molecular weight:
10845
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoM
Uniprot ID:
P0AFE8
Molecular weight:
56524
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoN
Uniprot ID:
P0AFF0
Molecular weight:
52044
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of L-aspartate to iminoaspartate
Gene Name:
nadB
Uniprot ID:
P10902
Molecular weight:
60337
Reactions
L-aspartate + O(2) = iminosuccinate + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
The nitrate reductase enzyme complex allows E.coli to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The beta chain is an electron transfer unit containing four cysteine clusters involved in the formation of iron-sulfur centers. Electrons are transferred from the gamma chain to the molybdenum cofactor of the alpha subunit
Gene Name:
narH
Uniprot ID:
P11349
Molecular weight:
58066
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in nitrate reductase activity
Specific function:
The nitrate reductase enzyme complex allows E.coli to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The gamma chain is a membrane-embedded heme-iron unit resembling cytochrome b, which transfers electrons from quinones to the beta subunit
Gene Name:
narI
Uniprot ID:
P11350
Molecular weight:
25497
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone. Uses fumarate or nitrate as electron acceptor
Gene Name:
glpB
Uniprot ID:
P13033
Molecular weight:
45357
Reactions
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone. Uses molecular oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptor
Gene Name:
glpD
Uniprot ID:
P13035
Molecular weight:
56750
Reactions
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
GDH is probably involved in energy conservation rather than in sugar metabolism
Gene Name:
gcd
Uniprot ID:
P15877
Molecular weight:
86747
Reactions
D-glucose + ubiquinone = D-glucono-1,5-lactone + ubiquinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
hycE
Uniprot ID:
P16431
Molecular weight:
64980
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Probable electron transfer protein for hydrogenase 3
Gene Name:
hycF
Uniprot ID:
P16432
Molecular weight:
20309
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
hycG
Uniprot ID:
P16433
Molecular weight:
27999
General function:
Involved in 2-polyprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3- demethylubiquinone-9 = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + ubiquinone-9
Gene Name:
ubiG
Uniprot ID:
P17993
Molecular weight:
26555
Reactions
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3-demethylubiquinone-n = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + ubiquinone-n.
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3-(all-trans-polyprenyl)benzene-1,2-diol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2-methoxy-6-(all-trans-polyprenyl)phenol.
General function:
Involved in unfolded protein binding
Specific function:
Chaperone required for proper molybdenum cofactor insertion and final assembly of the membrane-bound respiratory nitrate reductase 2
Gene Name:
narW
Uniprot ID:
P19317
Molecular weight:
26160
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
This is a second nitrate reductase enzyme which can substitute for the NRA enzyme and allows E.coli to use nitrate as an electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The beta chain is an electron transfer unit containing four cysteine clusters involved in the formation of iron-sulfur centers. Electrons are transferred from the gamma chain to the molybdenum cofactor of the alpha subunit
Gene Name:
narY
Uniprot ID:
P19318
Molecular weight:
58557
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
The alpha chain is the actual site of nitrate reduction
Gene Name:
narZ
Uniprot ID:
P19319
Molecular weight:
140226
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in formate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity
Specific function:
Formate dehydrogenase allows E.coli to use formate as major electron donor during anaerobic respiration, when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. The alpha subunit forms the active site
Gene Name:
fdnG
Uniprot ID:
P24183
Molecular weight:
112963
Reactions
Formate + NAD(+) = CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoF
Uniprot ID:
P31979
Molecular weight:
49292
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in formate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity
Specific function:
Allows to use formate as major electron donor during aerobic respiration. Subunit alpha possibly forms the active site
Gene Name:
fdoG
Uniprot ID:
P32176
Molecular weight:
112549
Reactions
Formate + NAD(+) = CO(2) + NADH.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
(S)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H(+)
Gene Name:
lldD
Uniprot ID:
P33232
Molecular weight:
42728
Reactions
(S)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H(+).
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoC
Uniprot ID:
P33599
Molecular weight:
68236
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoG
Uniprot ID:
P33602
Molecular weight:
100298
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
NDH-1 shuttles electrons from NADH, via FMN and iron- sulfur (Fe-S) centers, to quinones in the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme in this species is believed to be ubiquinone. Couples the redox reaction to proton translocation (for every two electrons transferred, four hydrogen ions are translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane), and thus conserves the redox energy in a proton gradient
Gene Name:
nuoL
Uniprot ID:
P33607
Molecular weight:
66438
Reactions
NADH + quinone = NAD(+) + quinol.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP). Only expressed at high levels during aerobic growth. NapAB complex receives electrons from the membrane-anchored tetraheme protein napC, thus allowing electron flow between membrane and periplasm. Essential function for nitrate assimilation and may have a role in anaerobic metabolism
Gene Name:
napA
Uniprot ID:
P33937
Molecular weight:
93041
Reactions
Nitrite + acceptor = nitrate + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in malate dehydrogenase (quinone) activity
Specific function:
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
Gene Name:
mqo
Uniprot ID:
P33940
Molecular weight:
60229
Reactions
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
glcF
Uniprot ID:
P52074
Molecular weight:
45110
General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)
Gene Name:
sdhC
Uniprot ID:
P69054
Molecular weight:
14299
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD1 is believed to have a role in hydrogen cycling during fermentative growth
Gene Name:
hyaA
Uniprot ID:
P69739
Molecular weight:
40681
Reactions
H(2) + A = AH(2).
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
This is one of three E.coli hydrogenases synthesized in response to different physiological conditions. HYD2 is involved in hydrogen uptake
Gene Name:
hybO
Uniprot ID:
P69741
Molecular weight:
39652
Reactions
H(2) + A = AH(2).
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Involved in electron transfer (Probable)
Gene Name:
napG
Uniprot ID:
P0AAL3
Molecular weight:
24924
General function:
Involved in coenzyme binding
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
mdaB
Uniprot ID:
P0AEY5
Molecular weight:
21891
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
ykgE
Uniprot ID:
P77252
Molecular weight:
26004
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Involved in electron transfer
Gene Name:
napH
Uniprot ID:
P33934
Molecular weight:
31873
General function:
Involved in cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase activity
Specific function:
Cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex is the component of the aerobic respiratory chain of E.coli that predominates when cells are grown at high aeration
Gene Name:
cyoA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABJ1
Molecular weight:
34911
Reactions
Ubiquinol-8 + O(2) = Ubiquinone-8 + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Probable b-type cytochrome
Gene Name:
hyaC
Uniprot ID:
P0AAM1
Molecular weight:
27597
General function:
Unknown function
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
ykgG
Uniprot ID:
P77433
Molecular weight:
25212
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
glcE
Uniprot ID:
P52073
Molecular weight:
38361
General function:
Involved in cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase activity
Specific function:
Cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex is the component of the aerobic respiratory chain of E.coli that predominates when cells are grown at high aeration
Gene Name:
cyoD
Uniprot ID:
P0ABJ6
Molecular weight:
12029
General function:
Involved in protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Required for disulfide bond formation in some periplasmic proteins such as phoA or ompA. Acts by transferring its disulfide bond to other proteins and is reduced in the process. DsbA is reoxidized by dsbB. It is required for pilus biogenesis
Gene Name:
dsbA
Uniprot ID:
P0AEG4
Molecular weight:
23104
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Participates in the periplasmic electron-transferring activity of hydrogenase 2 during its catalytic turnover
Gene Name:
hybA
Uniprot ID:
P0AAJ8
Molecular weight:
36003
General function:
Involved in lactate oxidation
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
ykgF
Uniprot ID:
P77536
Molecular weight:
53052
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Cytochrome oxidase subunit
Gene Name:
appB
Uniprot ID:
P26458
Molecular weight:
42423
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Probably involved in the transfer of electrons from the quinone pool to the type-c cytochromes
Gene Name:
nrfD
Uniprot ID:
P32709
Molecular weight:
35042
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Probable b-type cytochrome
Gene Name:
hybB
Uniprot ID:
P37180
Molecular weight:
43602
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Cytochrome oxidase subunit
Gene Name:
appC
Uniprot ID:
P26459
Molecular weight:
57919
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Probably involved in the transfer of electrons from the quinone pool to the type-c cytochromes
Gene Name:
nrfC
Uniprot ID:
P0AAK7
Molecular weight:
24567
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Cytochrome d terminal oxidase complex is the component of the aerobic respiratory chain of E.coli that predominates when cells are grown at low aeration
Gene Name:
cydB
Uniprot ID:
P0ABK2
Molecular weight:
42453
Reactions
Ubiquinol-8 + O(2) = Ubiquinone-8 + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in heme binding
Specific function:
Plays a role in nitrite reduction
Gene Name:
nrfB
Uniprot ID:
P0ABL1
Molecular weight:
20714
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
Specific function:
Aldose sugar dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. The physiological substrate is unknown. Can oxidize glucose to gluconolactone. Can also utilize D-arabinose, L- arabinose and 2-deoxy-glucose. Has higher activity towards oligomeric sugars, such as maltose, maltotriose or cellobiose. It may function to input sugar-derived electrons into the respiratory network
Gene Name:
yliI
Uniprot ID:
P75804
Molecular weight:
41054
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Small subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP). Only expressed at high levels during aerobic growth. NapAB complex receives electrons from the membrane-anchored tetraheme napC protein, thus allowing electron flow between membrane and periplasm. Essential function for nitrate assimilation and may have a role in anaerobic metabolism
Gene Name:
napB
Uniprot ID:
P0ABL3
Molecular weight:
16297
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
Cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex is the component of the aerobic respiratory chain of E.coli that predominates when cells are grown at high aeration. This ubiquinol oxidase shows proton pump activity across the membrane in addition to the electron transfer
Gene Name:
cyoB
Uniprot ID:
P0ABI8
Molecular weight:
74367
Reactions
Ubiquinol-8 + O(2) = Ubiquinone-8 + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
hycC
Uniprot ID:
P16429
Molecular weight:
64076
General function:
Involved in protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Required for disulfide bond formation in some periplasmic proteins such as phoA or ompA. Acts by oxidizing the dsbA protein
Gene Name:
dsbB
Uniprot ID:
P0A6M2
Molecular weight:
20142
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Cytochrome d terminal oxidase complex is the component of the aerobic respiratory chain of E.coli that predominates when cells are grown at low aeration
Gene Name:
cydA
Uniprot ID:
P0ABJ9
Molecular weight:
58205
Reactions
Ubiquinol-8 + O(2) = Ubiquinone-8 + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in heme binding
Specific function:
Mediates electron flow from quinones to the napAB complex
Gene Name:
napC
Uniprot ID:
P0ABL5
Molecular weight:
23100
General function:
Involved in heme-copper terminal oxidase activity
Specific function:
Cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex is the component of the aerobic respiratory chain of E.coli that predominates when cells are grown at high aeration
Gene Name:
cyoC
Uniprot ID:
P0ABJ3
Molecular weight:
22623
Reactions
Ubiquinol-8 + O(2) = Ubiquinone-8 + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in unfolded protein binding
Specific function:
Chaperone required for proper molybdenum cofactor insertion and final assembly of the membrane-bound respiratory nitrate reductase 1. Required for the insertion of the molybdenum into the apo-NarG subunit, maybe by keeping NarG in an appropriate competent-open conformation for the molybdenum cofactor insertion to occur. NarJ maintains the apoNarGH complex in a soluble state. Upon insertion of the molybdenum cofactor, NarJ seems to dissociate from the activated soluble NarGH complex, before its association with the NarI subunit on the membrane
Gene Name:
narJ
Uniprot ID:
P0AF26
Molecular weight:
26449
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
hycD
Uniprot ID:
P16430
Molecular weight:
33029