Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 10:21:54 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:06 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00148
Identification
Name:L-Glutamate
Description:Glutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. There are two forms of glutamic acid found in nature: L-glutamic acid and D-glutamic acid. D-glutamic acid is found naturally primarily in the cell walls of certain bacteria. The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates. Glutamate is a key compound in cellular metabolism. Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in the form of its sodium salt monosodium glutamate (MSG). Transamination of ¦Á-ketoglutarate gives glutamate. Glutamate will also go through transamination reactions with other ¦Á-ketoacids.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • α-aminoglutarate
  • α-aminoglutaric acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-Glutamate
  • (S)-Glutamic acid
  • 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 2-Aminoglutarate
  • 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  • 2-Aminopentanedioate
  • 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • A-Aminoglutarate
  • A-Aminoglutaric acid
  • A-Glutamate
  • A-Glutamic acid
  • Aciglut
  • Alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • Alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • Alpha-Glutamate
  • Alpha-Glutamic acid
  • Aminoglutarate
  • Aminoglutaric acid
  • E
  • Glt
  • Glu
  • Glusate
  • Glusic acid
  • Glut
  • Glutacid
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamic acid
  • Glutamicol
  • Glutamidex
  • Glutaminate
  • Glutaminic acid
  • Glutaminol
  • Glutaton
  • L-(+)-Glutamate
  • L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • L-a-Aminoglutarate
  • L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-Glu
  • L-Glutamate
  • L-Glutamic acid
  • L-Glutaminate
  • L-Glutaminic acid
  • L-α-Aminoglutarate
  • L-α-Aminoglutaric acid
  • α-Aminoglutarate
  • α-Aminoglutaric acid
  • α-Glutamate
  • α-Glutamic acid
Chemical Formula:C5H9NO4
Weight:Average: 147.1293
Monoisotopic: 147.053157781
InChI Key:WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
CAS number:56-86-0
IUPAC Name:(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:L-glutamic acid
SMILES:N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:-1
Melting point:Not Available
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:8.57 mg/mL [BULL,HB et al. (1978)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.69 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Hydrogen carbonate >2 ADP + Carbamoylphosphate + L-Glutamate +2 Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Pyruvic acid
N-Acetylornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonium
L-Glutamine + Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P > Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamide + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamate + Pyruvic acid
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + NADPH >2 L-Glutamate + NADP
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
Ketoleucine + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Leucine
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonium > ADP + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Phenylalanine <> L-Glutamate + Phenylpyruvic acid
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Tyrosine <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Alanine-L-glutamate + Water > L-Alanine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
L-Glutamate + 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + Phosphoserine
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Aspartic acid <> L-Glutamate + Oxalacetic acid
L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + 2 Water + NAD > L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + NADH
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Putrescine + Ethylenediamine <> ADP + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
Water + N-Succinyl-L-glutamate <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid
alpha-Ketoglutarate + N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine <> L-Glutamate + N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonium
L-Glutamate + Imidazole acetol-phosphate <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Histidinol phosphate
L-Glutamate + UDP-4-Keto-pyranose <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose
L-Glutamine + Water + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate <> L-Glutamate + Pyrophosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine
Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Dihydrofolic acid + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + tRNA (Glu) > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Xanthylic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate + Guanosine monophosphate +2 Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + L-Glutamate <> ADP + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Uridine triphosphate > ADP + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate +2 Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate <> N-Acetyl-L-alanine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonium
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Putrescine > 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate <> L-Glutamate + N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate
Glutathione + Water > Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamate
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Isoleucine <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Valine <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + dTDP-D-Fucosamine
D-Glutamic acid <> L-Glutamate
2 L-Glutamate + NAD <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
2 L-Glutamate + NADP <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate <> ADP + L-Glutamyl 5-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate
L-Glutamate + NAD + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water <> L-Glutamate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamate + NADP + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamine
L-Glutamine + Water <> L-Glutamate + Ammonia
L-Alanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-L-alanine
L-Glutamate <> D-Glutamic acid
L-Glutamate <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
L-Aspartic acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamate
N-Succinyl-L-glutamate + Water <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid
Glutathione + Water <> Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
L-Phenylalanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + 2 Water <> L-Glutamate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + 2 Water <> L-Glutamate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
L-Tyrosine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate <> L-Glutamate + Glucosamine 6-phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + L-Cysteine <> ADP + Phosphate + gamma-Glutamylcysteine
beta-Alanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Phosphate + Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate <> L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water
L-Leucine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-Glutamate + Ketoleucine
Putrescine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Valine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
L-Isoleucine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Phosphate + Dihydrofolic acid
N-Acetylornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Cysteic acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
3-Sulfinoalanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Sulfinylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Histidinol phosphate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamate
R-S-Glutathione + Water <> R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamate
3-Cyano-L-alanine + L-Glutamate <> gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Water
beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamate <> gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Water
Phosphoserine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphate + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate
N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate + L-Glutamate
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine <> D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + AICAR + L-Glutamate
L-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamate
O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate
tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate + tRNA(Glu) <> L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate <> L-Methionine + alpha-Ketoglutarate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Putrescine <> ADP + Phosphate + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
UDP-4-Keto-pyranose + L-Glutamate <> Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose + alpha-Ketoglutarate
6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water <> 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate
Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate + NADPH > ADP + L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + NADP + Phosphate
Oxoglutaric acid + kynurenine L-Glutamate + 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Water > ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Water > ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion
N-Acetylornithine + Oxoglutaric acid < N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamate + Pyruvic acid
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > Hydrogen ion + 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + L-Asparagine + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid <> Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid <> Ketoleucine + L-Glutamate
L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water > Hydrogen ion + Carbamoylphosphate + L-Glutamate + Phosphate + ADP
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + L-Cysteine > L-Glutamate + 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid
an aliphatic &alpha;,&omega;-diamine + Oxoglutaric acid <> an aliphatic &omega;-aminoaldehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Dihydrofolic acid + Phosphate + ADP
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + ADP + Phosphate + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate
a tetrahydrofolate-glutamate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > a tetrahydrofolate-glutamate + Phosphate + ADP
an <i>N</i><sup>10</sup>-formyl-tetrahydrofolate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > an <i>N</i><sup>10</sup>-formyl-tetrahydrofolate + ADP + Phosphate
Oxoglutaric acid + gamma-Aminobutyric acid <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
L-Glutamate + NADP < Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + AICAR
L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Ammonia
Ammonia + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > L-Glutamine + ADP + Phosphate
L-Cysteine + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Phosphate + ADP
Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate > Carbon dioxide + gamma-Aminobutyric acid
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> Hydrogen ion + Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH
L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate + ADP
L-Glutamate <> D-Glutamic acid
Water + L-Glutamine + Xanthylic acid + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate
Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamate <> Histidinol phosphate + Oxoglutaric acid
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine > Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate + Acetyl-CoA <> Hydrogen ion + <i>N</i>-acetyl-L-glutamate + Coenzyme A
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + NAD + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Chorismate <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate <> L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate < Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + L-Glutamine + Water
Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric acid <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid <> 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + NADH
4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate <> dTDP-D-Fucosamine + Oxoglutaric acid
Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose + Oxoglutaric acid <> UDP-4-Keto-pyranose + L-Glutamate
a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + Phosphate + ADP
Putrescine + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP + Phosphate
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
Water + p-Aminobenzoyl glutamate > p-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate
a [protein] &alpha;-L-glutamate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate a [protein] &alpha;-L-glu-&alpha;-L-glu + ADP + Phosphate
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamate + Water > L-Alanine + L-Glutamate
glycyl-L-glutamate + Water > Glycine + L-Glutamate
N<SUP>2</SUP>-succinylglutamate + Water > Succinic acid + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate <> L-Glutamate + N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid > N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid > Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid > Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate > CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate
N-Acetylornithine + Oxoglutaric acid > N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate + Oxoglutaric acid > N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid > N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N-Succinyl-L-glutamate + Water > Succinic acid + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Carbonic acid + Water >2 ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Carbonic acid + Water >2 ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
L-Glutamate > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
L-Glutamate > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP > Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH
Adenosine triphosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-Glutamate > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1)
Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamate > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Dihydrofolic acid
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-Glutamate
Glutathione + Water > Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate > L-Glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamine
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonia
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonia
2 L-Glutamate + NADP > L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
2 L-Glutamate + NADP > L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + L-Cysteine > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + gamma-Glutamylcysteine
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
5-((5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino)-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-Glutamine > imidazole-glycerol phosphate + N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide + L-Glutamate + Water
5-((5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino)-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-Glutamine > imidazole-glycerol phosphate + N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide + L-Glutamate + Water
Histidinol phosphate + Oxoglutaric acid > Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamate
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid > Ketoleucine + L-Glutamate
L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid > (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-Glutamate
L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid > a-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate > D-Glutamic acid
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid > L-Glutamate + 1-Pyrroline + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + L-Glutamine + Water > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + 2-(Formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamate
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 Water > L-Glutamate + NAD(P)H
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Putrescine > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric acid > Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid > 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + tRNA(Glu) > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
An aromatic amino acid + Oxoglutaric acid > an aromatic oxo acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water + Ammonia + Carbamic acid + Carboxyphosphate <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
Phosphoserine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate + 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid
Ethylenediamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + 4-Aminobutyraldehyde <> 1-Pyrroline + L-Glutamate + Water
2 L-Glutamate + NADP + Ammonia + Water <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
dTDP-D-Fucosamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate
Aromatic amino acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Aromatic oxo acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + THF-polyglutamate + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Phosphate
Ammonia + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Glutamate <> Phosphate + L-Glutamine + Adenosine diphosphate + ADP
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium + L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + ADP
Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonia + NADPH <> Water + NADP + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Ammonium + Hydrogen ion + NADPH > L-Glutamic acid + Water + NADP + L-Glutamate
2 L-Glutamic acid + NADP + 2 L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + NADPH + Hydrogen ion + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen ion + NADPH >2 L-Glutamic acid + NADP +2 L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> D-Glutamic acid
N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + Oxoglutaric acid
L-Glutamic acid + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate > Carbon dioxide + 4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + L-Aspartic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Aspartic acid > Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamate > L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Aspartic acid
Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Alanine + L-Alanine
a-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Valine + L-Valine
Isovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Valine + L-Valine
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Valine + L-Valine
L-Glutamic acid + Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid + N-Acetylglutamic acid
N-acetyl-L-glutamate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + N-Acetylornithine
N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + N-Acetylornithine
Hydrogen carbonate + Water + L-Glutamine + 2 Adenosine triphosphate >2 Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + L-Glutamic acid +2 Hydrogen ion + Carbamoylphosphate +2 ADP + L-Glutamate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid > L-Glutamic acid + N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N2-succinylglutamate + Water + N2-succinylglutamate > L-Glutamic acid + Succinic acid + L-Glutamate
Putrescine + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > L-Glutamic acid + gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid > L-Glutamic acid + 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + γ-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate + ADP
L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water >2 Hydrogen ion + NADH + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen ion + tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamate > Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
8 L-Glutamic acid + 8 Hydrogen ion + 8 Adenosine triphosphate + 8 tRNA(Glu) + 8 L-Glutamate >8 Adenosine monophosphate +8 Pyrophosphate +8 L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + DL-O-Phosphoserine
2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> A-Ketoglutaric acid oxime + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Tyrosine + L-Tyrosine
Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Leucine
Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Phenylalanine + L-Phenylalanine
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + DL-O-Phosphoserine
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> Oxoglutaric acid + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + A-Ketoglutaric acid oxime
2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + Hydrogen ion + 5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + L-Glutamate
Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-histidinol-phosphate
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Isoleucine + L-Isoleucine
L-Aspartic acid + Water + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + L-Aspartic acid > L-Asparagine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen ion + 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water + L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + NAD + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + ADP
D-tagatofuranose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate > L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate + 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate
7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + 7,8-dihydrofolate monoglutamate + ADP + Dihydrofolic acid
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water + L-Glutamine > 5-Phosphoribosylamine + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine + L-Glutamate
5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + Water + L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide > 2-(Formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamic acid + Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + ADP
Xanthylic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid +2 Hydrogen ion + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate > Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Cytidine triphosphate + ADP + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + dTDP-thomosamine
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> N-Acetyl-L-alanine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid + N-Acetyl-L-alanine + N-Acetylglutamic acid
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamic acid + ADP
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid <> L-Glutamic acid + 1-Pyrroline + Water + L-Glutamate
Cysteic acid + Oxoglutaric acid <> L-Glutamate + 3-Sulfopyruvic acid
L-Glutamate + 3-Cyano-L-alanine > Water + gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine
Putrescine + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Oxoglutaric acid + L-Cysteine > L-Glutamate + 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid
gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate + Water > gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + dTDP-D-Fucosamine
D-tagatofuranose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
More...

SMPDB Pathways:
4-aminobutanoate degradation IPW002068 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism IPW000886 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism IIIPW000895 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Asparagine biosynthesisPW000813 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Aspartate metabolismPW000787 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Collection of Reactions without pathwaysPW001891 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolismPW000769 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Folate biosynthesisPW000908 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Glutathione metabolismPW000833 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis IPW002066 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
L-alanine metabolismPW000788 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
L-glutamate metabolismPW000789 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
L-glutamate metabolism IIPW001886 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Leucine BiosynthesisPW000811 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesisPW000831 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Lysine biosynthesisPW000771 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
NAD biosynthesisPW000829 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
NAD salvagePW000830 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Nitrogen metabolismPW000755 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
O-antigen building blocks biosynthesisPW002089 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesisPW000828 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Phenylalanine metabolismPW000921 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Porphyrin metabolismPW000936 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Propanoate metabolismPW000940 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Putrescine Degradation IIPW002054 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Pyrimidine metabolismPW000942 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolite: Leucine biosynthesisPW000980 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Histidine biosynthesisPW000984 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: Valine and I-leucine biosynthesis from pyruvatePW000978 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: cysteine biosynthesis from serinePW000977 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesisPW000959 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis 2PW002045 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Secondary Metabolites: enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis 3PW002046 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Thiamin diphosphate biosynthesisPW002028 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Tryptophan metabolismPW000815 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Valine BiosynthesisPW000812 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
Vitamin B6 1430936196PW000891 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
arginine metabolismPW000790 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
beta-Alanine metabolismPW000896 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
cysteine biosynthesisPW000800 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glutathione metabolism IIPW001927 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
glutathione metabolism IIIPW002018 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
histidine biosynthesisPW000810 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
inner membrane transportPW000786 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
isoleucine biosynthesisPW000818 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis IIPW001905 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis IIIPW002059 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
ornithine metabolismPW000791 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis IPW000906 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
peptidoglycan biosynthesis I 2PW002062 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
phenylalanine biosynthesisPW000807 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
polymyxin resistancePW002052 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
proline metabolismPW000794 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesisPW000910 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis 1435709748PW000960 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis 2PW002033 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
serine biosynthesis and metabolismPW000809 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tRNA Charging 2PW000803 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tRNA chargingPW000799 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
threonine biosynthesisPW000817 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tryptophan metabolism IIPW001916 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
tyrosine biosynthesisPW000806 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
96000± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glucoseMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
149000± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L glycerolMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
44800± 0 uMK12 NCM3722Gutnick minimal complete medium (4.7 g/L KH2PO4; 13.5 g/L K2HPO4; 1 g/L K2SO4; 0.1 g/L MgSO4-7H2O; 10 mM NH4Cl) with 4 g/L acetateMid-Log PhaseShake flask and filter culture37 oCPMID: 19561621
4270± 0 uMBW2511348 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 10 mM NaCl, 45 mM (NH4)2SO4, supplemented with 1 mM MgSO4, 1 mg/l thiamine·HCl, 5.6 mg/l CaCl2, 8 mg/l FeCl3, 1 mg/l MnCl2·4H2O, 1.7 mg/l ZnCl2, 0.43 mg/l CuCl2·2H2O, 0.6 mg/l CoCl2·2H2O and 0.6 mg/l Na2MoO4·2H2O. 4 g/L GlucoStationary Phase, glucose limitedBioreactor, pH controlled, O2 and CO2 controlled, dilution rate: 0.2/h37 oCPMID: 17379776
259± 45 uMBL21 DE3Luria-Bertani (LB) mediaStationary phase cultures (overnight culture)Shake flask37 oCExperimentally Determined
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Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0790000000-79d3e289c22cb183faa1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ea-6932100000-30d3f5dcc198a5971e96View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0znc-9300000000-f88e86b78a4cee99a2d4View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8290000000-f99e03763f636e557887View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-6900000000-95b0a084dc076f9c7b91View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-c37d4c80a14ec029ef63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-6f1888aa71bcb0adf76cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-5fa8a338dcd2f2a6bdd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-16763200aa07f7629ad4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-d9cfc5187aa799f6f978View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-10ee9a593e13550bec1cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d045a3c1fc6e56f801bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c3c7f8f3754109a0c25bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-48bfae26c69408b7f0aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-82c2a681e7522a7bb1d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0905010000-af1c9ec4d0062fa6960eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-9700000000-2b967b896a6e48914512View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1434321646181ea894a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-11fadb2530828eedad8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0941100000-07d051890cb1d9e5c856View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-f8619d11f1f54d836bb1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ea2dd00e79ef06e8dc04View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-3e239d4014c95a2ef873View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b548959edce39d319cf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-40d901f655797db2cd0fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f997527a39900ac431c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-7900000000-60816f0601a4e6d25ffbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-6ee821f657c604d1afcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0900000000-7c02624abe56da9247a2View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
References
References:
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  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Molinari F, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Fiermonte G, Encha-Razavi F, Palmieri L, Palmieri F, Ben-Neriah Z, Kadhom N, Vekemans M, Attie-Bitach T, Munnich A, Rustin P, Colleaux L: Impaired mitochondrial glutamate transport in autosomal recessive neonatal myoclonic epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):334-9. Epub 2004 Dec 8. Pubmed: 15592994
  • Mross K, Maessen P, van der Vijgh WJ, Gall H, Boven E, Pinedo HM: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of epidoxorubicin and doxorubicin in humans. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Mar;6(3):517-26. Pubmed: 3162516
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  • Noorlander CW, de Graan PN, Nikkels PG, Schrama LH, Visser GH: Distribution of glutamate transporters in the human placenta. Placenta. 2004 Jul;25(6):489-95. Pubmed: 15135231
  • Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. Pubmed: 15939876
  • Olson RC: A proposed role for nerve growth factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Dec;51(6):493-8. Pubmed: 10052870
  • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
  • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
  • Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. Pubmed: 10736365
  • Rizzo V, Anesi A, Montalbetti L, Bellantoni G, Trotti R, Melzi d'Eril GV: Reference values of neuroactive amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Apr 5;729(1-2):181-8. Pubmed: 9004939
  • Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. Pubmed: 16400059
  • Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  • Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. Pubmed: 10736373
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
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  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Zoia C, Cogliati T, Tagliabue E, Cavaletti G, Sala G, Galimberti G, Rivolta I, Rossi V, Frattola L, Ferrarese C: Glutamate transporters in platelets: EAAT1 decrease in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Feb;25(2):149-57. Pubmed: 14749132
  • Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
Synthesis Reference: Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16015
HMDB IDHMDB00148
Pubchem Compound ID33032
Kegg IDC00025
ChemSpider ID30572
WikipediaGlutamic_acid
BioCyc IDGLT
EcoCyc IDGLT
Ligand ExpoGLU_LFZW_DHE2

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
gdhA
Uniprot ID:
P00370
Molecular weight:
48581
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
aspC
Uniprot ID:
P00509
Molecular weight:
43573
Reactions
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansB
Uniprot ID:
P00805
Molecular weight:
36851
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpE
Uniprot ID:
P00895
Molecular weight:
57494
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabA
Uniprot ID:
P00903
Molecular weight:
20772
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpD
Uniprot ID:
P00904
Molecular weight:
56869
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate = anthranilate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
carB
Uniprot ID:
P00968
Molecular weight:
117841
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of GMP from XMP
Gene Name:
guaA
Uniprot ID:
P04079
Molecular weight:
58679
Reactions
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
tyrB
Uniprot ID:
P04693
Molecular weight:
43537
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction:glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu)
Gene Name:
gltX
Uniprot ID:
P04805
Molecular weight:
53815
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabB
Uniprot ID:
P05041
Molecular weight:
50969
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3- (imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
hisC
Uniprot ID:
P06986
Molecular weight:
39360
Reactions
L-histidinol phosphate + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-(imidazol-4-yl)-2-oxopropyl phosphate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives
Gene Name:
folC
Uniprot ID:
P08192
Molecular weight:
45405
Reactions
ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
ATP + 7,8-dihydropteroate + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + 7,8-dihydropteroylglutamate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon
Gene Name:
putA
Uniprot ID:
P09546
Molecular weight:
143814
Reactions
L-proline + acceptor = (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 H(2)O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltB
Uniprot ID:
P09831
Molecular weight:
166708
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltD
Uniprot ID:
P09832
Molecular weight:
52015
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L- glutamate
Gene Name:
argA
Uniprot ID:
P0A6C5
Molecular weight:
49195
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamine catabolic process
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
carA
Uniprot ID:
P0A6F1
Molecular weight:
41431
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA2
Uniprot ID:
P0A6W0
Molecular weight:
33515
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glutamate-cysteine ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
Gene Name:
gshA
Uniprot ID:
P0A6W9
Molecular weight:
58269
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine.
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to glutamate to form glutamate 5-phosphate which rapidly cyclizes to 5- oxoproline
Gene Name:
proB
Uniprot ID:
P0A7B5
Molecular weight:
39056
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate = ADP + L-glutamate 5-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
pyrG
Uniprot ID:
P0A7E5
Molecular weight:
60374
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
glnA
Uniprot ID:
P0A9C5
Molecular weight:
51903
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
purF
Uniprot ID:
P0AG16
Molecular weight:
56488
Reactions
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D- ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2- (formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
purL
Uniprot ID:
P15254
Molecular weight:
141402
Reactions
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Dipeptidase with broad substrate specificity. Requires dipeptide substrates with an unblocked N-terminus and the amino group in the alpha or beta position. Non-protein amino acids and proline are not accepted in the C-terminal position, whereas some dipeptide amides and formyl amino acids are hydrolyzed. Also shows cysteinylglycinase activity, which is sufficient for E.coli to utilize cysteinylglycine as a cysteine source
Gene Name:
pepD
Uniprot ID:
P15288
Molecular weight:
52915
Reactions
Hydrolysis of dipeptides, preferentially hydrophobic dipeptides including prolyl amino acids.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in hexosamine metabolism, converting fructose-6P into glucosamine-6P using glutamine as a nitrogen source
Gene Name:
glmS
Uniprot ID:
P17169
Molecular weight:
66894
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in both the arginine and lysine biosynthetic pathways
Gene Name:
argD
Uniprot ID:
P18335
Molecular weight:
43767
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate + 2-oxoglutarate = N-succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a key step in NAD biosynthesis, transforming deamido-NAD into NAD by a two-step reaction
Gene Name:
nadE
Uniprot ID:
P18843
Molecular weight:
30637
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + NH(3) = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+).
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
(5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = peptide + 5-L-glutamyl amino acid
Gene Name:
ggt
Uniprot ID:
P18956
Molecular weight:
61768
Reactions
A (5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = a peptide + a 5-L-glutamyl amino acid.
Glutathione + H(2)O = L-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
asnB
Uniprot ID:
P22106
Molecular weight:
62659
Reactions
ATP + L-aspartate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
gabT
Uniprot ID:
P22256
Molecular weight:
45774
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in racemase and epimerase activity, acting on amino acids and derivatives
Specific function:
Provides the (R)-glutamate required for cell wall biosynthesis
Gene Name:
murI
Uniprot ID:
P22634
Molecular weight:
31002
Reactions
L-glutamate = D-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3- phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4- phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine. Is involved in both pyridoxine and serine biosynthesis
Gene Name:
serC
Uniprot ID:
P23721
Molecular weight:
39783
Reactions
O-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-phosphonooxypyruvate + L-glutamate.
4-phosphonooxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Displays a broad specificity and can also deacylate substrates such as acetylarginine, acetylhistidine or acetylglutamate semialdehyde
Gene Name:
argE
Uniprot ID:
P23908
Molecular weight:
42347
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + H(2)O = acetate + L-ornithine.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the aminotransferase reaction from putrescine to 2-oxoglutarate, leading to glutamate and 4-aminobutanal, which spontaneously cyclizes to form 1-pyrroline. Is also able to transaminate cadaverine and, in lower extent, spermidine, but not ornithine. Alpha-ketobutyrate and pyruvate can also act as amino acceptors, although much less efficiently
Gene Name:
patA
Uniprot ID:
P42588
Molecular weight:
49661
Reactions
Putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + 1-pyrroline + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via transamination of gamma-aminobutyrate
Gene Name:
puuE
Uniprot ID:
P50457
Molecular weight:
44729
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadA
Uniprot ID:
P69908
Molecular weight:
52685
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadB
Uniprot ID:
P69910
Molecular weight:
52668
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via hydrolysis of the gamma-glutamyl linkage of gamma-glutamyl-gamma- aminobutyrate
Gene Name:
puuD
Uniprot ID:
P76038
Molecular weight:
28013
Reactions
4-(L-gamma-glutamylamino)butanoate + H(2)O = 4-aminobutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Transforms N(2)-succinylglutamate into succinate and glutamate
Gene Name:
astE
Uniprot ID:
P76215
Molecular weight:
35800
Reactions
N-succinyl-L-glutamate + H(2)O = succinate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA1
Uniprot ID:
P77454
Molecular weight:
32903
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transamination of N(2)-succinylornithine and alpha-ketoglutarate into N(2)-succinylglutamate semialdehyde and glutamate. Can also act as an acetylornithine aminotransferase
Gene Name:
astC
Uniprot ID:
P77581
Molecular weight:
43665
Reactions
N(2)-succinyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-succinyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP- Ara4O) to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides
Gene Name:
arnB
Uniprot ID:
P77690
Molecular weight:
41649
Reactions
UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-beta-L-arabinose + 2-oxoglutarate = UDP-beta-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via the biosynthesis of gamma-L-glutamylputrescine
Gene Name:
puuA
Uniprot ID:
P78061
Molecular weight:
53177
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + putrescine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamylputrescine.
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltJ
Uniprot ID:
P0AER3
Molecular weight:
27502
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltK
Uniprot ID:
P0AER5
Molecular weight:
24914
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
IGPS catalyzes the conversion of PRFAR and glutamine to IGP, AICAR and glutamate. The hisH subunit provides the glutamine amidotransferase activity that produces the ammonia necessary to hisF for the synthesis of IGP and AICAR
Gene Name:
hisH
Uniprot ID:
P60595
Molecular weight:
21653
Reactions
5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine = imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
yfbQ
Uniprot ID:
P0A959
Molecular weight:
45517
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acts on leucine, isoleucine and valine
Gene Name:
ilvE
Uniprot ID:
P0AB80
Molecular weight:
34093
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in ECA elongation
Gene Name:
rffA
Uniprot ID:
P27833
Molecular weight:
41901
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
IGPS catalyzes the conversion of PRFAR and glutamine to IGP, AICAR and glutamate. The hisF subunit catalyzes the cyclization activity that produces IGP and AICAR from PRFAR using the ammonia provided by the hisH subunit
Gene Name:
hisF
Uniprot ID:
P60664
Molecular weight:
28454
Reactions
5-[(5-phospho-1-deoxyribulos-1-ylamino)methylideneamino]-1-(5-phosphoribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide + L-glutamine = imidazole-glycerol phosphate + 5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide + L-glutamate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
gltL
Uniprot ID:
P0AAG3
Molecular weight:
26661
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Binds to both aspartate and glutamate
Gene Name:
gltI
Uniprot ID:
P37902
Molecular weight:
33420
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
yfdZ
Uniprot ID:
P77434
Molecular weight:
46216
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Probably part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system yecCS for an amino acid. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
yecC
Uniprot ID:
P37774
Molecular weight:
27677
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Probably part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system yecCS for an amino acid; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
yecS
Uniprot ID:
P0AFT2
Molecular weight:
24801
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltJ
Uniprot ID:
P0AER3
Molecular weight:
27502
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltK
Uniprot ID:
P0AER5
Molecular weight:
24914
General function:
Involved in glutamate:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular glutamate
Gene Name:
gltS
Uniprot ID:
P0AER8
Molecular weight:
42425
General function:
Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific function:
This carrier protein is part of the Na(+)-independent, binding-protein-independent glutamate-aspartate transport system
Gene Name:
gltP
Uniprot ID:
P21345
Molecular weight:
47159
General function:
Involved in amino acid transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in glutamate-dependent acid resistance. Imports glutamate inside the cell while simultaneously exporting to the periplasm the GABA produced by gadA and gadB. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadC
Uniprot ID:
P63235
Molecular weight:
55076
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
gltL
Uniprot ID:
P0AAG3
Molecular weight:
26661
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Binds to both aspartate and glutamate
Gene Name:
gltI
Uniprot ID:
P37902
Molecular weight:
33420