Record Information
Creation Date2012-05-31 09:57:42 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:06 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00121
Name:Folic acid
Description:Folic acid is a member of the vitamin B family. Folic acid, being biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylated tRNA, and generate and use formate.
  • Acifolic
  • Cytofol
  • Dosfolat B activ
  • Folacid
  • Folacin
  • Folate
  • Folbal
  • Folcidin
  • Foldine
  • Folettes
  • Foliamin
  • Folic acid
  • Folicet
  • Folipac
  • Folsan
  • Folsaure
  • Folsav
  • Folvite
  • Incafolic
  • Liver Lactobacillus casei factor
  • Millafol
  • N-(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamate
  • N-(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
  • N-Pteroyl-L-glutamate
  • N-Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • N-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamate
  • N-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
  • N-[4-[[(2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamate
  • N-[4-[[(2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid
  • PGA
  • PteGlu
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamate
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • Pteroyl-L-monoglutamate
  • Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
  • Pteroylglutamate
  • Pteroylglutamic acid
  • Pteroylmonoglutamate
  • Pteroylmonoglutamic acid
  • Vitamin Bc
  • Vitamin Be
  • Vitamin M
Chemical Formula:C19H19N7O6
Weight:Average: 441.3975
Monoisotopic: 441.139681375
CAS number:59-30-3
IUPAC Name:(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:folate
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Hippuric acid
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Pterin
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Pteridine
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenylalkylamine
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carboxamide group
  • Amino acid
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Secondary amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Melting point:250 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:0.0016 mg/mL [MERCK INDEX (1983)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.076 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
SMPDB Pathways:
Folate biosynthesisPW000908 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
One Carbon Pool by Folate IPW001735 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
One carbon pool by folatePW000773 ThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:Not Available
Not Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-2249100000-5ad16461f6638538ea08View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-4205390000-4152e24c68306bfe6554View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0000900000-4208ea3c2f5d9026c19fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0050900000-2c8ad037dc3b270765c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0007-0090300000-ebdec84cbb7fe5afbc0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-002b-0960000000-108d96993dc78f1e4b61View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-002b-0960000000-108d96993dc78f1e4b61View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00bd-0544900000-aa9a130e2cf3dacfb954View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004j-0954100000-7be7eac442233b5d3bcfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-1960000000-1950169762886f41b6ecView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0114900000-bff7f5f3d20dcd6a4494View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00r7-1249300000-e322ba8675bb922877a9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9652000000-8c87fa7172ed19a7eb27View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9410000000-7cba521e870757539424View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
  • Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. Pubmed: 10138938
  • Cahill E, McPartlin J, Gibney MJ: The effects of fasting and refeeding healthy volunteers on serum folate levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(2):142-5. Pubmed: 9565830
  • Clifford AJ, Arjomand A, Dueker SR, Schneider PD, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS: The dynamics of folic acid metabolism in an adult given a small tracer dose of 14C-folic acid. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;445:239-51. Pubmed: 9781393
  • Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Block G: The effect of folate fortification of cereal-grain products on blood folate status, dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Aug;24(4):266-74. Pubmed: 16093404
  • Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. Pubmed: 9683174
  • Gregory JF 3rd, Williamson J, Bailey LB, Toth JP: Urinary excretion of [2H4]folate by nonpregnant women following a single oral dose of [2H4]folic acid is a functional index of folate nutritional status. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1907-12. Pubmed: 9808641
  • Gregory JF 3rd, Williamson J, Liao JF, Bailey LB, Toth JP: Kinetic model of folate metabolism in nonpregnant women consuming [2H2]folic acid: isotopic labeling of urinary folate and the catabolite para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate indicates slow, intake-dependent, turnover of folate pools. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1896-906. Pubmed: 9808640
  • Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. Pubmed: 9420019
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kopczynska E, Ziolkowski M, Jendryczka-Mackiewicz E, Odrowaz-Sypniewska G, Opozda K, Tyrakowski T: [The concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in alcohol dependent male patients] Psychiatr Pol. 2004 Sep-Oct;38(5):947-56. Pubmed: 15523939
  • Lin Y, Dueker SR, Follett JR, Fadel JG, Arjomand A, Schneider PD, Miller JW, Green R, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS, Phair RD, Clifford AJ: Quantitation of in vivo human folate metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):680-91. Pubmed: 15321809
  • Litwin M, Abuauba M, Wawer ZT, Grenda R, Kuryl T, Pietraszek E: [Sulphur amino acids, vitamin B12 and folic acid in children with chronic renal failure] Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2000 Apr;8(46):268-9. Pubmed: 10897644
  • Olthof MR, Bots ML, Katan MB, Verhoef P: Effect of folic Acid and betaine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation: a randomized, controlled study in healthy volunteers. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006 Jun;1(2):e10. Epub 2006 Jun 9. Pubmed: 16871332
  • Pufulete M, Al-Ghnaniem R, Khushal A, Appleby P, Harris N, Gout S, Emery PW, Sanders TA: Effect of folic acid supplementation on genomic DNA methylation in patients with colorectal adenoma. Gut. 2005 May;54(5):648-53. Pubmed: 15831910
  • Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. Pubmed: 7738698
  • Rodriguez Flores J, Penalvo GC, Mansilla AE, Gomez MJ: Capillary electrophoretic determination of methotrexate, leucovorin and folic acid in human urine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 5;819(1):141-7. Pubmed: 15797531
  • Selley ML, Close DR, Stern SE: The effect of increased concentrations of homocysteine on the concentration of (E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 May-Jun;23(3):383-8. Pubmed: 11959400
  • Stern LL, Bagley PJ, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J: Conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid to 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid is unimpaired in folate-adequate persons homozygous for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2238-42. Pubmed: 10958818
  • Stuerenburg HJ, Ganzer S, Arlt S, Muller-Thomsen T: The influence of smoking on plasma folate and lipoproteins in Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment and depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Jun;26(3):261-3. Pubmed: 15990733
  • Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism]. Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. Pubmed: 8235383
Synthesis Reference:Piper, James R.; McCaleb, George S.; Montgomery, John A. Synthesis of 10-propargylfolic acid from 2-amino-6-(bromomethyl)-4(1H)-pteridinone. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry (1987), 24(1), 279-82.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID6037
Kegg IDC00504
ChemSpider ID5815
WikipediaFolic acid
BioCyc IDCPD-12826
EcoCyc IDCPD-12826
Ligand ExpoFOL


General function:
Involved in dihydrofolate reductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate + NADP(+) = 7,8-dihydrofolate + NADPH.