Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2012-05-31 09:56:16 -0600
Update Date2015-09-13 12:56:05 -0600
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • ECMDB00056
Identification
Name:beta-Alanine
Description:Beta-alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. However, it is not used in the biosynthesis of any major proteins or enzymes. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 2-Carboxyethylamine
  • 3-Amino-Propanoate
  • 3-Amino-Propanoic acid
  • 3-Aminopropanoate
  • 3-Aminopropanoic acid
  • 3-Aminopropionate
  • 3-Aminopropionic acid
  • Abufene
  • b Alanine
  • B-Ala
  • B-Alanine
  • B-Aminopropanoate
  • B-Aminopropanoic acid
  • B-Aminopropionate
  • B-Aminopropionic acid
  • Beta Alanine
  • Beta-Alanine
  • Beta-Aminopropanoate
  • Beta-Aminopropanoic acid
  • Beta-Aminopropionate
  • Beta-Aminopropionic acid
  • Omega-Aminopropionate
  • Omega-Aminopropionic acid
  • β Alanine
  • β-Alanine
  • β-Aminopropanoate
  • β-Aminopropanoic acid
  • β-Aminopropionate
  • β-Aminopropionic acid
Chemical Formula:C3H7NO2
Weight:Average: 89.0932
Monoisotopic: 89.047678473
InChI Key:UCMIRNVEIXFBKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c4-2-1-3(5)6/h1-2,4H2,(H,5,6)
CAS number:107-95-9
IUPAC Name:3-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name:β alanine
SMILES:NCCC(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State:Solid
Charge:0
Melting point:200 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:545.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.05 [TSAI,RS ET AL. (1991)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility494.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.7 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.62 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations:Cytoplasm
Reactions:
SMPDB Pathways:
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesisPW000828 Pw000828Pw000828 greyscalePw000828 simple
Propanoate metabolismPW000940 Pw000940Pw000940 greyscalePw000940 simple
Pyrimidine metabolismPW000942 Pw000942Pw000942 greyscalePw000942 simple
beta-Alanine metabolismPW000896 Pw000896Pw000896 greyscalePw000896 simple
KEGG Pathways:
EcoCyc Pathways:
Concentrations
ConcentrationStrainMediaGrowth StatusGrowth SystemTemperatureDetails
12± 0 uMBW2511348 mM Na2HPO4, 22 mM KH2PO4, 10 mM NaCl, 45 mM (NH4)2SO4, supplemented with 1 mM MgSO4, 1 mg/l thiamine·HCl, 5.6 mg/l CaCl2, 8 mg/l FeCl3, 1 mg/l MnCl2·4H2O, 1.7 mg/l ZnCl2, 0.43 mg/l CuCl2·2H2O, 0.6 mg/l CoCl2·2H2O and 0.6 mg/l Na2MoO4·2H2O. 4 g/L GlucoStationary Phase, glucose limitedBioreactor, pH controlled, O2 and CO2 controlled, dilution rate: 0.2/h37 oCPMID: 17379776
Find out more about how we convert literature concentrations.
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-007k-1920000000-9389ee061bd6e9ae3b22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fdt-2930000000-5799fddb7fac04d22372View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-006t-1940000000-49f1b7c80f35cbcf102eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-006t-2920000000-c701f2e5652fa4f35e50View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-8930000000-c4f8138d4cb7f1ea851aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-014i-2900000000-c54f1d5878600393dca7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1900000000-2f55a09bba074034dee7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00ds-2940000000-4192453eaba2cbecf800View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-006t-1960000000-665868f9adaa275dbdb3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-efc0822e26bcf842e232View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0072-2920000000-284cff207c712b6698d6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9000000000-c30cc77c93e4ec09265aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000j-9000000000-540a52fcec629c0a0647View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000b-9000000000-531b17f8e16896225186View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-61740a52186a51b8543cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-1bdf967935160468d550View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-0ba5264cfc5ec108718bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-c6a2c78d322328400127View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-d5f47100c42e7777802eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-e8f43be75c153e5be3ccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-1004-9000100000-ccb09493216d97165c8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00l7-9230000000-644b1dbe52c5f07e285aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ff4a990aa1fb1b7cc33dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3ac278f3f0cfc3d50ebfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-6d6e140cf4317b214296View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dl-9000000000-ead5967d7f21631b6fc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-91312dd333b1413fa045View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-007c-9000000000-caef7f2a75815a584747View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdo-9000000000-5642be49ea98b530ff09View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3ac278f3f0cfc3d50ebfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-6d6e140cf4317b214296View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dl-9000000000-ead5967d7f21631b6fc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-91312dd333b1413fa045View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-007c-9000000000-caef7f2a75815a584747View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdo-9000000000-5642be49ea98b530ff09View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-be815b0a56f225da04d8View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
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  • Champion EE, Mann SJ, Glazier JD, Jones CJ, Rawlings JM, Sibley CP, Greenwood SL: System beta and system A amino acid transporters in the feline endotheliochorial placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Dec;287(6):R1369-79. Epub 2004 Jul 29. Pubmed: 15284084
  • Chen Y, Getchell TV, Sparks DL, Getchell ML: Cellular localization of carnosinase in the human nasal mucosa. Acta Otolaryngol. 1994 Mar;114(2):193-8. Pubmed: 8203202
  • Gibson KM, Schor DS, Gupta M, Guerand WS, Senephansiri H, Burlingame TG, Bartels H, Hogema BM, Bottiglieri T, Froestl W, Snead OC, Grompe M, Jakobs C: Focal neurometabolic alterations in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. J Neurochem. 2002 Apr;81(1):71-9. Pubmed: 12067239
  • Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. 2006 May;30(3):279-89. Epub 2006 Mar 24. Pubmed: 16554972
  • Heggie GD, Sommadossi JP, Cross DS, Huster WJ, Diasio RB: Clinical pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in plasma, urine, and bile. Cancer Res. 1987 Apr 15;47(8):2203-6. Pubmed: 3829006
  • Hibbard JU, Pridjian G, Whitington PF, Moawad AH: Taurine transport in the in vitro perfused human placenta. Pediatr Res. 1990 Jan;27(1):80-4. Pubmed: 2296474
  • Holm B, Nilsen DW, Kierulf P, Godal HC: Purification and characterization of 3 fibrinogens with different molecular weights obtained from normal human plasma. Thromb Res. 1985 Jan 1;37(1):165-76. Pubmed: 3983897
  • Ishii, N., Nakahigashi, K., Baba, T., Robert, M., Soga, T., Kanai, A., Hirasawa, T., Naba, M., Hirai, K., Hoque, A., Ho, P. Y., Kakazu, Y., Sugawara, K., Igarashi, S., Harada, S., Masuda, T., Sugiyama, N., Togashi, T., Hasegawa, M., Takai, Y., Yugi, K., Arakawa, K., Iwata, N., Toya, Y., Nakayama, Y., Nishioka, T., Shimizu, K., Mori, H., Tomita, M. (2007). "Multiple high-throughput analyses monitor the response of E. coli to perturbations." Science 316:593-597. Pubmed: 17379776
  • Johnson MR, Barnes S, Sweeny DJ, Diasio RB: 2-Fluoro-beta-alanine, a previously unrecognized substrate for bile acid coenzyme A:amino acid:N-acyltransferase from human liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Sep 15;40(6):1241-6. Pubmed: 2119585
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Karmanskii IM: [Effect of pepsin on low density serum lipoproteins] Vopr Med Khim. 1977 Jul-Aug;23(4):530-4. Pubmed: 200005
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, Babenkova IV, Lyubitsky OB, Rebrova OYu, Boldyrev AA, Vladimirov YuA: Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(1):89-99. Pubmed: 9829262
  • Kuo KC, Cole TF, Gehrke CW, Waalkes TP, Borek E: Dual-column cation-exchange chromatographic method for beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine in biological samples. Clin Chem. 1978 Aug;24(8):1373-80. Pubmed: 679461
  • Malet-Martino MC, Bernadou J, Martino R, Armand JP: 19F NMR spectrometry evidence for bile acid conjugates of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine as the main biliary metabolites of antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 1988 Jan-Feb;16(1):78-84. Pubmed: 2894959
  • Milasta S, Pediani J, Appelbe S, Trim S, Wyatt M, Cox P, Fidock M, Milligan G: Interactions between the Mas-related receptors MrgD and MrgE alter signalling and trafficking of MrgD. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;69(2):479-91. Epub 2005 Nov 9. Pubmed: 16282220
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • van Kuilenburg AB, Meinsma R, Beke E, Assmann B, Ribes A, Lorente I, Busch R, Mayatepek E, Abeling NG, van Cruchten A, Stroomer AE, van Lenthe H, Zoetekouw L, Kulik W, Hoffmann GF, Voit T, Wevers RA, Rutsch F, van Gennip AH: beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency: an inborn error of pyrimidine degradation associated with neurological abnormalities. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Nov 15;13(22):2793-801. Epub 2004 Sep 22. Pubmed: 15385443
  • Van Kuilenburg, A. B., Stroomer, A. E., Van Lenthe, H., Abeling, N. G., Van Gennip, A. H. (2004). "New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid?" Biochem J 379:119-124. Pubmed: 14705962
  • Vijayendran, C., Barsch, A., Friehs, K., Niehaus, K., Becker, A., Flaschel, E. (2008). "Perceiving molecular evolution processes in Escherichia coli by comprehensive metabolite and gene expression profiling." Genome Biol 9:R72. Pubmed: 18402659
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference:Buc, Saul R.; Ford, Jared H.; Wise, E. C. Improved synthesis of b-alanine. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1945), 67 92-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16958
HMDB IDHMDB00056
Pubchem Compound ID239
Kegg IDC00099
ChemSpider ID234
Wikipediabeta-Alanine
BioCyc IDB-ALANINE
EcoCyc IDB-ALANINE
Ligand ExpoBAL

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in aspartate 1-decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the pyruvoyl-dependent decarboxylation of aspartate to produce beta-alanine
Gene Name:
panD
Uniprot ID:
P0A790
Molecular weight:
13834
Reactions
L-aspartate = beta-alanine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
gabT
Uniprot ID:
P22256
Molecular weight:
45774
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation of pantoate with beta-alanine in an ATP-dependent reaction via a pantoyl-adenylate intermediate
Gene Name:
panC
Uniprot ID:
P31663
Molecular weight:
31597
Reactions
ATP + (R)-pantoate + beta-alanine = AMP + diphosphate + (R)-pantothenate.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via transamination of gamma-aminobutyrate
Gene Name:
puuE
Uniprot ID:
P50457
Molecular weight:
44729
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadA
Uniprot ID:
P69908
Molecular weight:
52685
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in glutamate decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Converts glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), consuming one intracellular proton in the reaction. The gad system helps to maintain a near-neutral intracellular pH when cells are exposed to extremely acidic conditions. The ability to survive transit through the acidic conditions of the stomach is essential for successful colonization of the mammalian host by commensal and pathogenic bacteria
Gene Name:
gadB
Uniprot ID:
P69910
Molecular weight:
52668
Reactions
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO(2).

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Permease that is involved in the transport across the cytoplasmic membrane of D-alanine, D-serine and glycine
Gene Name:
cycA
Uniprot ID:
P0AAE0
Molecular weight:
51659
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Non-specific porin
Gene Name:
ompN
Uniprot ID:
P77747
Molecular weight:
41220
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Uptake of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylated compounds, and some other negatively charged solutes
Gene Name:
phoE
Uniprot ID:
P02932
Molecular weight:
38922
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
OmpF is a porin that forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane. It is also a receptor for the bacteriophage T2
Gene Name:
ompF
Uniprot ID:
P02931
Molecular weight:
39333
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Forms passive diffusion pores which allow small molecular weight hydrophilic materials across the outer membrane
Gene Name:
ompC
Uniprot ID:
P06996
Molecular weight:
40368